February 25, 2021
Mariana Byndloss to present Division of Biology Seminar
Mariana Byndloss, assistant professor of pathology, microbiology and immunology at Vanderbilt Medical University, will present "Gut Epithelial Metabolism as a Critical Driver of Dysbiosis Associated with Non-Communicable Diseases" as part of the Division of Biology Seminar Series at 3:30 p.m. Monday, Mar. 1, via Zoom.
In high-income countries, the leading causes of death are noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity, cancer and cardiovascular disease. An essential feature of most noncommunicable diseases is inflammation-induced gut dysbiosis characterized by a shift in the microbial community structure from obligate to facultative anaerobes such as Enterobacteriaceae. This microbial imbalance can contribute to disease pathogenesis due to either a microbiota-derived metabolite being depleted or produced at a harmful concentration. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which inflammation mediates changes in the host physiology to induce disruption of the microbial ecosystem in our large intestine leading to disease. Our group's recent work suggests that during gut homeostasis, epithelial hypoxia derived from PPARγ-dependent β-oxidation of microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids limits oxygen availability in the colon, thereby maintaining a balanced microbial community. During inflammation, disruption in gut anaerobiosis drives an expansion of facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria, regardless of their pathogenic potential. Therefore, our research group is currently exploring the concept that dysbiosis-associated growth of Enterobacteriaceae can thus be viewed as a microbial signature of epithelium dysfunction and has further consequences in different models noncommunicable diseases, including diet-induced obesity and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer.
If you would like to visit with Byndloss, please contact Steph Shames at firstname.lastname@example.org.