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Bloom's Classification of Cognitive Skills

From Ball State University

Bloom’s levels of cognitive skills are provided in the table below, along with definitions for each skills, and related behaviors. The terms can be used to create student learning outcomes that tap into each of the ability levels.


Bloom's Classification of Cognitive Skills
CategoryDefinitionRelated Behaviors
Knowledgerecalling or remembering something without necessarily understanding, using, or changing itdefine, describe, identify, label, list, match, memorize, point to, recall, select, state
Comprehensionunderstanding something that has been communicated without necessarily relating it to anything elsealter, account for, annotate, calculate, change, convert, group, explain, generalize, give examples, infer, interpret, paraphrase, predict, review, summarize, translate
Applicationusing a general concept to solve problems in a particular situation; using learned material in new and concrete situationsapply, adopt, collect, construct, demonstrate, discover, illustrate, interview, make use of, manipulate, relate, show, solve, use
Analysisbreaking something down into its parts; may focus on identification of parts or analysis of relationships between parts, or recognition of organizational principlesanalyze, compare, contrast, diagram, differentiate, dissect, distinguish, identify, illustrate, infer, outline, point out, select, separate, sort, subdivide
Synthesisreating something new by putting parts of different ideas together to make a whole.blend, build, change, combine, compile, compose, conceive, create, design, formulate, generate, hypothesize, plan, predict, produce, reorder, revise, tell, write
Evaluationjudging the value of material or methods as they might be applied in a particular situation; judging with the use of definite criteriaaccept, appraise, assess, arbitrate, award, choose, conclude, criticize, defend, evaluate, grade, judge, prioritize, recommend, referee, reject, select, support

Source : The information table above was derived from information presented on the Ball State University's web site, which was accessed in the summer of 2003.