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Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy


Democracy Theory and Practice Database (ICDD RefWorks database of published interdisciplinary research, with over 28,000 citations)


Selection of recent K-State faculty work related to democratic engagement, deliberation, and public issues  


Longo, Nicholas V. and Shaffer, Timothy J.,(Eds.). (2019). Creating Space for Democracy: A Primer on Dialogue and Deliberation in Higher Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Shaffer, Timothy J. (2019) Enabling Civic Discourse: Creating Civic Space and Resources for Democratic Discussion. In Boatright, R. G., Shaffer, T. J., Sobiaraj, S., & Goldthwaite Young, D. (Eds.).  (2019). A Crisis of Civility?: Political Discourse and Its Discontents. (pp.188-209). New York: Routledge.

Shaffer, Timothy J. (2019) Education Through a Deliberative Democratic Lens. In Pylynskyi, Yaroslav and Kopylenko, Oleksandr (Eds.) Decentralisation. Deliberation. Democracy: Our Power in Diversity. Volume 1. (pp.36-55). Kyev, Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Legislation Institute.

Hartlep, N. D., Lake, D., Purcell, J. W., Bush, A., Perry, L. G., Fleck, B., Kliewer, B. W., Janke, E. M., Markham, P., Orphan, C. M., & Saltmarsh, J. (2019). Toward an Innovative Civic Engagement Pedagogy. eJournal for Public Affairs, 8(1) http://www.ejournalofpublicaffairs.org/toward-an-innovative-civic-engagement-pedagogy/

Peters, S. J., Alter, T. R., & Shaffer, T. J. (Eds.). (2018). Jumping into civic life: Stories of public work from extension professionals.  Dayton, OH: Kettering Foundation.

Priest, K., Kliewer, B. W., & Stephens, C. M. (2018). Kansas leadership studies summit: Cultivating collaborative capacity for the common good, Journal of Leadership Education, Jul 17(3), 195-207.

Priest, K., Kliewer, B. W., Hornung, M., & Youngblood, R. J. (2018). The role of mentoring, coaching, and advising in developing leadership identity, New Directions for Student Leadership, 158, 24-35.

Shaffer, T. J., Longo, N. V., Manosevitch, I., & Thomas, M. S. (Eds.). (2017). Deliberative pedagogy: Teaching and learning for democratic engagement. Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. 

Shaffer, Timothy J. (2017). Democracy and Education: Historical Roots of Deliberative Pedagogy. In Shaffer, T. J., N. V. Longo, I. Manosevitch, and M. S. Thomas (Eds.) Deliberative Pedagogy: Teaching and Learning for Democratic Engagement, (pp. 21-36). East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Shaffer, Timothy J. (2017). (Striving for) Democracy in Small Groups: Engaging Politics in a Communication Studies Course. In I. Marin and R. Minor (Eds). Beyond Politics as Usual: College Students and Politics, (56-77). Dayton, OH: Kettering Foundation Press.

Kliewer, B. W., & Priest, K. (2016). Creating the conditions for political engagement: A narrative approach for community-engaged scholarship and civic leadership development. In K. M. Soria, & T. B. Mitchell (Eds.), Civic engagement and community service at research universities (pp. 47-62). London: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Kliewer, B. W., Moretto, K. N., & Purcell, J. W. (2016). Emergent spaces of civic leadership education and development: Understanding the liberal arts and humanities from a perspective of civic and public work. Journal of Leadership Education, 15(2), 114-128.

Kliewer, B. W., & Zacharakis, J. (2015). Leadership education and development for what?: Civic imagination for a more just and democratic society. Educational Considerations, 43(1), 1-3. 

Kliewer, B., & Zacharakis, J. (2015). Leadership education and development for justice using the canonical framework of John Rawls's, "A theory of justice". Educational Considerations, 43(1), 36-41. 

Kliewer, B. W., & Mukhtar, S. (2015). Looking ahead: Envisioning the next generation of civic work. Diversity & Democracy, 18(1), 28-29. 

Kliewer, B. W., Cox, D., Cooney, B., & Stiehl, B. (2015). Connecting general education programming with regionally-engaged learning economies: The results of a community inquiry and dialogue. PRISM: A Journal of Regional Engagement, 4(1), 3.

Kliewer, B. W., Rhea, J., Hollingshead, B., & Satkoski, C. (2015). Attention + action: The southwest Florida paradigm for community-engaged scholarship. In O. Delano-Oriaran, M. W. Penick-Parks & S. Fondrie (Eds.), The SAGE sourcebook of service-learning and civic engagement. New York: Sage Publications.

Gibson, H.J. (2014). Capturing the Buzz: Education through Global Participation. The Scholarly Teacher: Applying Evidence-Based Strategies to Enrich Student Learning. September 15. Online: http://scholarlyteacher.com/

Wohlpart, A. J., Kliewer, B. W., Hollingshead, B., Otto, E., Wohlpart, S. L., Green, D., . . . Morimano, L. (2014). Leadership through service: Advancing economic justice through intergenerational learning at FGCU. In P. B. Corcoran, & B. Hollingshead (Eds.), Intergenerational learning and transformative leadership for sustainable futures. (pp. 377-383). Wageningen, Netherlands: Academic Publishers.

Kliewer, B. (2014). Emerging spaces of community-engaged leadership: Reconsidering online learning and the purposes and process of democratic engagement. In S. Crabill, & D. Butin (Eds.), Community engagement 2.0?: Dialogues on the future of the civic in the disrupted university. (pp. 82-91). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kliewer, B. (2013). Why civic engagement in higher education cannot achieve democratic and justice aims. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(2), 72-79.

Kliewer, B. W., Quinter, E., & Neat, S. (2013). Community-engaged impact entrepreneurship: Organizing reciprocal partnerships for a more democratic economy. EJournal of Public Affairs, 2(3), 1-21.

Kliewer, B. W. (2013). Regional engagement at a crossroads: The intersection of neoliberalism, access, and democratic engagement. PRISM: A Journal of Regional Engagement, 2(1), 2.

Shaffer, T. J. (2012). The land grant system and graduate education: Reclaiming a narrative of engagement. In A. Gilvin, G. M. Roberts & C. Martin (Eds.), Collaborative futures: Critical reflections on publicly active graduate education. (pp. 49-74). Syracuse, NY: The Graduate School Press.

Sandmann, L. R., & Kliewer, B. W. (2012). Theoretical and applied perspectives on power: Recognizing processes that undermine effective community-university partnerships. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 5(2), 20.

Kliewer, B. W., Sandmann, L. R., & Narasimharao, B. P. (2012). Corporate-university partnerships: The outreach and engagement model. In B. P. Narasimharao (Ed.), Evolving corporate education structures for developing countries: The role of the university.  (pp. 270-285). Hersey, PA: IGI Global.

Dostilio, L. D., Brackmann, S. M., Edwards, K. E., Harrison, B., Kliewer, B. W., & Clayton, P. H. (2012). Reciprocity: Saying what we mean and meaning what we say. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(1), 17-32.

Zacharakis, J., Steichen, M., Diaz, d. S., & Glass, D. (2011). Understanding the experiences of adult learners: Content analysis of focus group data. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, (2), 84-95.

Sandmann, L. R., Kliewer, B. W., Kim, J., & Omerikwa, A. (2010). Toward understanding reciprocity in community-university partnerships: An analysis of select theories of power. In J. Keshen, S. H. Billig & B. A. Holland (Eds.), Advances in service learning: Research for what? (pp. 3-23). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Jarvis, S. E., & Han, S. (2010). Communication and civic participation: Promoting engaged citizenship through digital filmmaking. Electronic Journal of Communication, 20

Jarvis, S. E., & Han, S. (2010). Teaching citizenship: Student-led documentary film projects in the communication classroom. Communication Teacher, 24(1), 35-42. doi:10.1080/17404620903433390


Borton, I., & Paul, G. D. (2018). A mixed-methods analysis of mediator socialization through training.” International Journal of Conflict Management, 29, 109-125. doi: 10.110/IJCMA-03-2017-0019

Paul, G. D. (2017). Willingness to participate in dialogic deliberation on campus. Journal of Public Deliberation, 13. Accessible at https://www.publicdeliberation.net/jpd/

Paul, G. D., & I. M. Borton. (2017). Toward a communication perspective of restorative justice: Implications for research, facilitation, and assessment. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 10, 199-219. doi: 10.1111/ncmr.12097

Paul, G. D. (2017). Paradoxes of restorative justice in the workplace. Management Communication Quarterly, 31, 380-408. doi: 10.1177/0893318916681512

Paul, G. D. (2016). But does it work? The influence of presumed goal attainment effectiveness on willingness to use legalistic and restorative responses to offensive behavior. Communication Studies, 67(2), 239-258. doi:10.1080/10510974.2015.1121157

Paul, G. D. (2015). Justice perceptions and practices of restorative justice facilitators and the public. Contemporary Justice Review, 18(3), 274-295. doi:10.1080/10282580.2015.1057678

Paul, G. D., & Riforgiate, S. E. (2015). “Putting on a happy face,” “Getting back to work,” and “Letting it go”: Traditional and restorative justice understandings of emotions at work. Electronic Journal of Communication, 25(3 & 4)

Paul, G. D. (2015). Predicting participation in a victim– offender conference. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 8(2), 100-118. doi:10.1111/ncmr.12049

Borton, I. M., & Paul, G. D. (2015). Problematizing the healing metaphor of restorative justice. Contemporary Justice Review, 18(3), 257-273. doi:10.1080/10282580.2015.1057704

Paul, G. D., & Dunlop, J. A. (2014). The other voice in the room: Restorative justice facilitators' constructions of justice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 31(3), 257-283. doi:10.1002/crq.21091

Paul, G. D., & Borton, I. M. (2013). Exploring communities of facilitators: Orientations toward restorative justice. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 31(2), 189-218. doi:10.1002/crq.21073

Paul, G. D. (2012). “We must not think evil of this man”: A case study of Amish and English forgiveness. Communication Quarterly, 60(3), 424-444. doi:10.1080/01463373.2012.688722

Hart, R., & Lind, C. (2011). The rhetoric of Islamic activism: A DICTION study. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 4(2), 113-125. doi:10.1080/17467586.2011.627934


Shaffer, T. J. (2018). Thinking Beyond Food and Fiber: Public Dialogue and Deliberation in the New Deal Department of Agriculture. In Hoflund, A. Bryce, J. Jones, and Michelle C. Pautz (Eds). The Intersection of Food and Public Health: Current Policy Challenges and Solutions, (307-326). CRC Press/Taylor and Francis.

Davis, K. L., Kliewer, B. W., & Nicolaides, A. (2017). Power and Reciprocity in Partnerships: Deliberative Civic Engagement and Transformative Learning in Community-Engaged Scholarship. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 21(1), 30-54.  

Han, S., Schenck-Hamlin, W., & and Schenck-Hamlin, D. (2015). Inclusion, equality, and discourse quality in citizen deliberations on broadband. Journal of Public Deliberation, 11(1)

Blacksher, E., Maree, G., Schrandt, S., Soderquist, C., Steffensmeier, T., & St. Peter, R. (2015). Health policy, ethics, and the Kansas Legislative Health Academy. American Journal of Public Health, 105(3), 485-489.

Han, S., & Brazeal, L. M. (2015). Playing nice: Modeling civility in online political discussions. Communication Research Reports, 32(1), 20-28. doi:10.1080/08824096.2014.989971

Shaffer, T. (2014). Deliberation in and through higher education. Journal of Public Deliberation, 10(1), 1-5.

Schenck-Hamlin, D., Han, S., & Schenck-Hamlin, B. (2014). Library-led forums on broadband: An inquiry into public deliberation. Library Quarterly, 84(3), 278-293.

Lind, C. J. (2014). Deference in the district: An analysis of congressional town hall meetings from the C-SPAN video library. In R. Browning (Ed.), The C-SPAN archives: An interdisciplinary resource for discovery, learning, and engagement.   (pp. 59-77). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Han, S., & Lind, C. (2014). Who speaks with certainty? Examining verbal style in public discussion forums. National Communication Association Annual Convention, Chicago.

Blong, L. (2014). Facilitating episode work. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Black, L. W., Shaffer, T. J., & and Thomas, N. L. (2014). Reflecting on the state of our field: Challenging our purpose, impact, and potential. Journal of Public Deliberation, 10(1)

Gibson, H. J. (2011). School facility age and classroom technology: The influence of stakeholder participation in the technology planning process. American Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities, 1(1), 39-50. Retrieved from http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/12430

Steffensmeier, T., & Woodbury, T. (2011). Rebuilding communities with the public square process. In L. W. Black (Ed.), Group communication: Cases for analysis, appreciation, and application. (pp. 183-191). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Dillard, K. N. (2011). Assessing the problem of gender inequality in deliberative democracy (Dissertation). Retrieved from http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/12005

Schenck-Hamlin, W., & Schenck-Hamlin, D. (2010). Deliberation quality in national issues forums and midwest democracy project blogs. Manhattan, KS: Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy, Kansas State University.

Schenck-Hamlin, D., Schenck-Hamlin, B., Steffensmeier, T., & Marzluf, P. (2010). Employing deliberative polling ™ in a university classroom; results of a pilot test. Manhttan, KS: Institute for Civic Discourse and Democracy, Kansas State University.


Boatright, R.G., Shaffer, T.J., Sobieraj, S., & Young, D.G. (2019). A Crisis of civility?: Political discourse and its discontents. New York: Routledge.

Jarvis, S. E. & Han, S. H. (2018) Votes that count and voters who don't: How journalists sideline electoral participation (without even knowing it). State College: Penn State University Press.

Han, S., Brazeal, L., & Pennington, N. (2018) Is Civility Contagious? Examining the Impact of Modeling in Online Political Discussions, Social Media & Society. doi: 10.1177/2056305118793404 

Han, S., & Lind, C. (2017). Putting Powerfulness in Its Place: A Study on Discursive Style in Public Discussion and Its Impact, Argumentation and Advocacy53(3), 216-233. doi: 10.1080/00028533.2017.1337332 

Hart, R. P., & Lind, C. J. (2014). The blended language of partisanship in the 2012 presidential campaign. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(4), 591-616. doi:10.1177/0002764213506220

Hart, R. P., Childers, J. P., & Lind, C. J. (2013). Political tone: How leaders talk and why. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lind, C. J. (2014). Democratic deference in a republican primary. In R. P. Hart (Ed.), Communication and language analysis in the public sphere (pp. 99-119). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-5003-9.ch006

Lodge, M., & Taber, C. S. (2013). The rationalizing voter. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Payne, J. G., Jarvis, S. E., & Han, S. (2013). From an honored value to a harmful choice: How presidential candidates have discussed electoral participation (1948-2012). American Behavioral Scientist, 57(12), 1650-1662. doi:10.1177/0002764213490695

Jarvis, S. E., & Han, S. (2011). The mobilized voter: Portrayals of electoral participation in print news coverage of campaign 2008. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(4), 419-436. doi:10.1177/0002764211398069

Purtle, S. M., & Steffensmeier, T. R. (2011). The daily show and Barack Obama's critique of whiteness: An intersection of popular and political rhetoric.  (chapter 13). In T. Goodnow, J. E. Barbur & C. W. Buerkle (Eds.), The daily show and rhetoric: Arguments, issues and strategies Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Steffensmeier, T. (2010). Building a public square: An analysis of community narratives. Community Development, 41(2), 255-268. doi:10.1080/15575330903477317

Taber, C., & Lodge, M. (2016). The Illusion of Choice in Democratic Politics: The Unconscious Impact of Motivated Political Reasoning. Political Psychology, 37(Supp.1), 61-85.


Shaffer, T. J. (2013). What should you and I do?: Lessons for civic studies from deliberative politics in the new deal. The Good Society, 22(2), 137-150.

Mahoney, J. (2010). Secularism, equality, and political legitimacy. The Journal of Value Inquiry, 44(1), 17-30. doi:10.1007/s10790-010-9201-9

Karnes, M. K., Shaffer, T. J., & Ghere, R. K. (2011). The challenges of accountability for international nongovernmental and civil society organizations. In Dubnick, Melvin J., and Frederickson, H. George, (Ed.), Accountable governance: Problems and promises. (pp. 180-196). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Mahoney, J. (2011). A democratic equality approach to religious exemptions. Journal of Social Philosophy, 42(3), 305-320. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.2011.01531.x


Shared Air Shared Action Coalition (Forthcoming). Our Air: Monitoring Pollution & Air Quality. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, Center for Hazardous Substance Research.

Erickson, L. E., Robinson, J., Brase, G., & Cutsor, J. (2017). Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles : A sustainable development Boca Raton : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Harrington, L. M. B. (2016). Sustainability theory and conceptual considerations: a review of key ideas for sustainability, and the rural context. Papers in Applied Geography. 2(4): 365-382. (doi 10.1080/23754931.2016.1239222)

Gibson, H.J. and Canfield, J. (2016). Pocket parks as community building blocks: A focus on Stapleton, CO. Community Development, 47(5), 732-745.

Harrington, L. M. B. (2015). Sustainability science. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group.

Robinson, J., Brase, G., Griswold, W., Jackson, C., & Erickson, L. (2014). Business models for solar powered charging stations to develop infrastructure for electric vehicles. Sustainability, 6(10), 7358-7387. doi:10.3390/su6107358

Bergstrom, R., and L.M.B. Harrington. (2014). Balancing economies, communities, and the environment in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Journal of Rural and Community Development 8(3): 228-241.

Campbell Hibbs, A., Kahl, D., PytlikZillig, L., Champion, B., Abdel-Monem, T., Steffensmeier, T., . . . Hubbard, K. (2014). Agricultural producer perceptions of climate change and climate education needs for the central great plains. Journal of Extension, 53(4) 

Gibson, H. and Becker, M. (2013) Smart Growth and the Challenge of NIMBY: Multifamily Dwellings and Their Association with Single-Family House Selling Prices in Tallahassee, Florida, USA. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis, 5(1), 77-88.

PytlikZillig, L. M., Steffensmeier, T., Campbell Hibbs, A., Champion, B. L., Hunt, E., Harrington Jr., J., . . . Kahl, D. W. (2013). Fostering climate change education in the central great plains: A public engagement approach. International Journal of Sustainability Education, 8(1), 161-177.

Gibson, H.J. (2011). School Facility Age and Classroom Technology: The Influence of Stakeholder Participation in the Technology Planning Process. American Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities, 1(1), 39-50.

Shaffer, T. J. (2012). Environmental leadership and deliberative democracy: The challenges and promise of engagement. In Rigling Gallagher, D., N. Christensen, and P. Andrews (Ed.), Environmental leadership: A reference handbook, volume 1 (pp. 229-236). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. doi:10.4135/9781452218601.n25

Griswold, W. (2011). Ecoliteracy learning for classrooms and communities. Paper presented at the 2011 Sustainability Conference, Manhattan, KS. Retrieved from http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/9121

Erickson, L. E., Griswold, W. M., Saulters, O. S., & Hohn, K. L. (2011). Sustainability education for sustainable development Kansas State University.  Retrieved from http://searchit.lib.ksu.edu/KSUD:Entire_Library_Collection:01KSU_DSPACE2097/9113 


Gibson, H.J. and Wigfall, L.B.J. (2016). How place influences popular culture: Finding meaning in creative media. In S. Mazzucotelli Salice (Ed.), The Urban Gaze: Exploring Urbanity through Art, Architecture, Fashion and Media (25-32). Oxford, United Kingdom: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Duke, L., Grohe, M., Miller, A., & Williams, R. (2011). Case study 1: Art museums as places of learning and reflection for the medical field. Journal of Museum Education, 36(1), 58-61. doi:10.1080/10598650.2011.11510682

Duke, L. (2010). The museum visit: It’s an experience, not a lesson. Curator: The Museum Journal, 53(3), 271-279. doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.2010.00028.x