The ICONS Project is high school- and university-level experiential learning program that uses customized Web-based tools to support educational simulations and simulation-based training to put students in the role of decision-makers tasked with trying to resolve current policy issues.
This online game has teams of students run fictional countries in a world facing terrorism, resource shortages, and climate change. In addition to negotiating with other states, students face two sets of domestic policy challenges: the various interest groups in the country who clamor for particular projects and actions, and the dynamic of working with teammates responsible for different aspects of policymaking. There is an individual cost to each student.
Articles, Books, and Conference Papers
Amyot, Robert P. 2012. "Captain Sim v. Doctor Drone: Do Simulations Really Teach Better than Lectures?" Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, DC, February 17-19. Contact
Asal, Victor. 2005. “Playing Games with International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 6(3): 359-73. Abstract
Asal, Victor, and Jayson Kratoville. 2013. "Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations Through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens." Journal of Political Science Education 9(2): 132:143. Abstract
Baumann, Erin, and John FitzGibbon. 2019. "Developing Simulations for the Politics and International Relations Classroom." Journal of Political Science Education. DOI
Baylouny, Anne Marie. 2009. “Seeing Other Sides: Nongame Simulations and Alternative Perspectives of Middle East Conflict.” Journal of Political Science Education 5(3): 214-232. Abstract
Ben-Hehuda, Hemda, Luba Levin-Banchik, and Chanan Naveh. 2015. World Politics Simulations in a Global Information Age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Blanton, Robert G. 2013. “Zombies and International Relations: A Simple Guide for Bringing the Undead into Your Classroom.” International Studies Perspectives 14(1): 1-13. Abstract
Blum, Andrew and Audrey Schere. 2007. “What Creates Engagement? An Analysis of Student Participation in ICONS Simulations.” Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Charlotte, NC, February 9-11.
Boyer, Mark A. 2011. “Simulation in International Studies.” Simulation and Gaming 42(6): 685-689. Abstract
Brandle, Shawna M. 2019. "Games, Movies, and Zombies: Making IR Fun for Everyone." Journal of Political Science EducationDOI
Bridge, Dave, and Simon Radford. 2013. “Teaching Diplomacy by Other Means: Using an Outside-of-Class Simulation to Teach International Relations Theory.” International Studies Perspectives doi: 10.1111/insp.12017 Abstract
Carvalho, Gustavo. 2013. “Virtual Worlds Can be Dangerous: Using Ready-Made Computer Simulations for Teaching International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives forthcoming. Abstract
Ehrhardt, George. 2008. "Beyond the Prisoners' Dilemma Game: Making Game Theory a Useful Part of Undergraduate International Relations Classes." International Studies Perspectives 9(1): 54-74. Abstract
Giovanello, Sean P., Jason A. Kirk, Mileah K. Kromer, and Kerstin Sorenson. 2013. “Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course.” Journal of Political Science Education 9(2): 197-208. Abstract
Goodman, Andrew Lewis Allen. 2012. "Improving Student Learning Through a Second Bite at the Apple: The Value of Second Runs of International Relations Simulations." Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, DC, February 17-19.
Hendrickson, Petra. 2019. "Effect of Active Learning Techniques on Student Excitement, Interest, and Self-Efficacy." Journal of Political Science Education DOI
Horn, Laura, Olivier Rubin, and Laust Schouenborg. 2016. "Undead Pedagogy: How a Zombie Simulation Can Contribute to Teaching International Relations." International Studies Perspectives 17(2): 187-201. Abstract
Hunt, Kate. 2018. "Zombies, Gender, and Student Active Learning." Journal of Political Science Education 15(1): 49-63. Abstract
Ivanov, Ivan Dinev. 2012. "The Effectiveness of Inter-Institutional Collaboration in Designing and Conducting Simulations: The Case of ASEAN Plus Three Meetings." Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, DC, February 17-19.
Kaufman, Joyce P. 1998. “Using Simulation as a Tool to Teach About International Negotiation.” International Negotiation 3(1): 59-75. Abstract
Krain, Matthew, and Jeffrey S. Lantis. 2006. “Building Knowledge? Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Global Problems Summit Simulation.” International Studies Perspectives 7(4): 395-407. Abstract
Krain, Matthew, and Christina J. Shadle. 2006. "Starving for Knowledge: An Active Learning Approach to Teaching About World Hunger." International Studies Perspectives 7(1): 51-66. Abstract
Lamy, Steven L. 2000. “Teaching Introductory International Relations with Cases and Analytical Exercises.” In The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching Active Learning, eds. Jeffrey Lantis, Lynn M. Kuzma, and John Boehrer. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 21-36.
Lamy, Steven L. 2007. “Challenging Hegemonic Paradigms and Practices: Critical Thinking and Active Learning Strategies for International Relations.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40(1): 112-116. Abstract
Lantis, Jeffrey S. 1998. “Simulations and Experimental Learning in the International Relations Classroom.” International Negotiation 3(1): 39-57. Abstract
Levintova, Ekaterina, Terri Johnson, Denise Scheberle and Kevin Vonck. 2011. “Global Citizens are Made, Not Born: Multiclass Role-Playing Simulation of Global Decision Making.” Journal of Political Science Education 7(3): 245-274. Abstract
Mandel, Robert. 1987. “An Evaluation of the "Balance of Power" Simulation.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 31(2): 333-45. Abstract
McMillan, Samuel Lucas. 2014. "Bravo for Brevity: Using Short Paper Assignments in International Relations Classes." International Studies Perspectives 15(1): 109-120. Abstract
Newmann, William A., and Judyth L. Twigg. 2000. “Active Engagement of the Intro IR Student: A Simulation Approach.” PS: Political Science and Politics 33(4): 835-42. Abstract
Omelicheva, Mariya. 2006. “Global Politics on Trial: Using Educational Debate for Teaching Controversies of World Affairs.” International Studies Perspectives 7(2): 172-186. Abstract
Putnam, Robert. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization 42(3): 427-460. Abstract
Raines, Susan Summers. 2003. “The Potential Perils of Slack (not Pack) Pedagogy: A Response to J. Martin Rochester’s Remarks about Active Learning Strategies.” International Studies Perspectives 4(4): 432-435. Abstract
Raymond, Chad. 2010. "Do Role-Playing Simulations Generate Measurable and Meaningful Outcomes? A Simulation's Effect on Exam Scores and Teaching Evaluations." International Studies Perspectives 11(1): 51-60. Abstract
Raymond, Chad. 2012. “Missing the Trees for the Forest?: Learning Environments Versus Learning Techniques in Simulations.” Journal of Political Science Education 4(3): 69-84. Abstract
Raymond, Chad, and Simon Usherwood. 2013. “Assessment in Simulations.” Journal of Political Science Education 9(2): 157-167. Abstract
Reilly, David A. 2003. “The Power Politics Game: Offensive Realism in Theory and Practice.” Simulation and Gaming 34(2): 298-305. Abstract
Rosen, Amanda M., and Nina A. Kollars. 2012. "Simulation and Role-Play Design: Bring the Student Back In." Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, DC, February 17-19. Contact Contact
Ross, Jon. 2012. "Political Theater? The Value of Improvisation and Game-Playing." Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, DC, February 17-19. Contact
Rothman, Steven B. 2012. “Developing and Adapting Simulations Through Six Points of Variance: An Example of Teaching Applied Game Theory Through International Negotiations.” International Studies Perspectives 13(4): 437-457. Abstract
Sasley, Brent E. 2010. “Teaching Students How to Fail: Simulations as Tools of Explanation.” International Studies Perspectives 11(1): 61-74. Abstract
Shaw, Carolyn M. 2004. “Using Role-Playing Scenarios in the IR Classroom: An Examination of Exercises on Peacekeeping Operations and Foreign Policy Decision Making.” International Studies Perspectives 5(1): 1-22.
Shaw, Carolyn M., and Bob Switky. 2018. "Designing and Using Simulations in the International Relations Classroom." Journal of Political Science Education 14(4): 523-534. Abstract
Shellman, Stephen. 2006. “Do Simulations Enhance Student Learning?: An Empirical Evaluation of an IR Simulations.” Journal of Political Science Education 2(1): 19-32. Abstract
Simpson, Archie, and Bernd Kaussler. 2009. “IR Teaching Reloaded: Using Films and Simulations in the Teaching of International Relations.” International Studies Perspectives 10 (4): 413-27. Abstract
Starkey, Brigid A. and Elizabeth L. Blake. 2001. “Simulation in International Relations Education.” Simulation and Gaming 32(4): 690-710. Abstract
Thomas, G. Dale. 2002. “The Isle of Ted Simulation: Teaching Collective Action in International Relations and Organization.” PS: Political Science & Politics 35(3): 555-559. Abstract
Vernon, Vavrina. 2006. “An Old-Timer’s Reflections on IP Simulations.” Paper presented at the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, Washington, D.C., February.
Weiden, David L. 2009. “Comparing Judicial Institutions: Using an Inquisitorial Trial Simulation to Facilitate Student Understanding of International Legal Traditions.” PS: Political Science and Politics 42(4): 759-63. Abstract
Weir, Kimberly and Michael Baranowski. 2011. “Simulating History to Understand International Politics.” Simulation and Gaming 42(4): 441-461. Abstract
West, Lucy, and Dan Halvorson. 2019. "Student Engagement and Deep Learning in the First-Year International Relations Classroom: Simulating a UN Security Council Debate on the Syrian Crisis." Journal of Political Science EducationDOI
Wheeler, Susan M. 2006. “Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses.” Journal of Political Science Education 2(3): 331-47. Abstract
Wilkenfeld, Jonathan and Joyce Kaufman. 1993. “Political Science: Network Simulation in International Politics.” Social Science Computer Review 11(4): 464-476. Abstract
Young, Laura D., Nusta Carranza Ko, and Michael Perrin. 2018. "Using Game of Thrones to Teach International Relations." Journal of Political Science Education 14(3): 360-375. Abstract
Youde, Jeremy. 2008. “Crushing Their Dreams? Simulations and Student Idealism.” International Studies Perspectives 9(3): 348-356. Abstract
Zappile, Tina M., Daniel J. Beers, and Chad Raymond. 2017. "Promoting Global Empathy and Engagement Through Real-Time Problem-Based Simulations." International Studies Perspectives 18(2): 194-210. Abstract