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Assessment of Student Learning

Bloom's Classification of Cognitive Skills

Remember – Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory



Locating knowledge in long-term memory that is consistent with presented material (e.g., Recognize the dates of important events in U.S. history)



Retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory (e.g., Recall the dates of important events in U.S. history)

Understand – Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication


Clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating

Changing from one form of representation (e.g., numerical) to another (e.g., verbal) (e.g., Paraphrase important speeches and documents)


Illustrating, instantiating

Finding a specific example or illustration of a concept or principle (e.g., Give examples of various artistic painting styles)


Categorizing, subsuming

Determining that something belongs to a category (e.g., concept or principle) (e.g., Classify observed or described cases of mental disorders)


Abstracting, generalizing

Abstracting a general theme or major point(s) (e.g., Write a short summary of the events portrayed on a videotape)


Concluding, extrapolating, interpolating, predicting

Drawing a logical conclusion from presented information (e.g., In learning a foreign language, infer grammatical principles from examples)


Contrasting, mapping, matching

Detecting correspondences between two ideas, object, and the like (e.g., Compare historical events to contemporary situations)


Constructing models

Constructing a cause-and-effect model of a system (e.g., Explain the causes of important 18th-century events in France)

Apply – Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation


Carrying out

Applying a procedure to a familiar task (e.g., Divide one whole number by another whole number, both with multiple digits)



Applying a procedure to an unfamiliar task (e.g., Use Newton’s Second Law in situations in which it is appropriate)

Analyze Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose
DifferentiatingDiscriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selectingDistinguishing relevant from irrelevant parts or important from unimportant parts of presented material (e.g., Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant numbers in a mathematical word problem)
OrganizingFinding, coherence, integrating, outlining, parsing, structuringDetermining how elements fit or function within a structure (e.g., Structure evidence in a historical description into evidence for and against a particular historical explanation)
AttributingDeconstructingDetermine a point of view, bias, values, or intent underlying presented material (e.g., Determine the point of view of the author of an essay in terms of his or her political perspective)
Evaluate - Make judgments based on criteria and standards
CheckingCoordinating, detecting, monitoring, testingDetecting inconsistencies or fallacies within a process or product; determining whether a process or product has internal consistency; detecting the effectiveness of a procedure as it is being implemented (e.g., Determine if a scientist’s conclusions follow from observed data)
CritiquingJudgingDetecting inconsistencies between a product and external criteria, determining whether a product has external consistency; detecting the appropriateness of a procedure for a given problem (e.g., Judge which of two methods is the best way to solve a given problem)
Create - Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure
GeneratingHypothesizingComing up with alternative hypotheses based on criteria (e.g., Generate hypotheses to account for an observed phenomenon)
PlanningDesigningDevising a procedure for accomplishing some task (e.g., Plan a research paper on a given historical topic)
ProducingConstructingInventing a product (e.g., Build habitats for a specific purpose)


 Bloom Revised