Garrett Lab

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Plant Disease Ecology
Ecological Genomics
Biodiversity Resource Science

Selected Publications

Please note that many of these papers are copyrighted and they are provided here only for use by our colleagues, not for any commercial use.

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Members of the lab are indicated in bold

In review. Hondrade, R. F., E. Hondrade, L. Zheng, F. A. Elazegui, L. Murray, J. L. E. Duque, C. C. Mundt, C. M. Vera Cruz, and K. A. Garrett. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: A rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean.

In review. Skelsey, P., G. A. Forbes, H. Juarez, W. Pérez, and K. A. Garrett. Climatic impact analysis for crop pathogens: bridging occurrence, spread, management decisions and yield loss using simple map transformations.

In review. Sparks, A. H., G. A. Forbes, R. J. Hijmans, and K. A. Garrett. Climate change effects on the global risk of potato late blight.

Cox, C. M., W. W. Bockus, R. D. Holt, L. Fang, and K. A. Garrett. 2013. The spatial connectedness of plant species: Potential links for apparent competition via plant diseases. Plant Pathology, online early. [preprint PDF]

Garrett, K. A., A. Dobson, J. Kroschel, B. Natarajan, S. Orlandini, H. E. Z. Tonnang, and C. Valdivia. 2013. The effects of climate variability and the color of weather time series on agricultural diseases and pests, and decision making for their management. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 170:216-227. [preprint PDF]
[R script: Program to evaluate crop yield loss to biotic stressors and management decision rules in variable environments]

Garrett, K. A., P. D. Esker, and A. H. Sparks. 2013. An introduction to key distributions and models for epidemiology using R. Exercises in Plant Disease Epidemiology, 2nd Edition. K. Stevenson and M. Jeger, eds. APS Press, Minneapolis, MN. In press.

Garrett, K. A., G. A. Forbes, L. Gomez, M. A. Gonzales, M. Gray, P. Skelsey, and A. H. Sparks. 2013. Cambio climático, enfermedades de las plantas e insectos plaga. In Cambio climático en los Andes. E. Jimenez, ed. In press.

Garrett, K. A., S. Thomas, G. A. Forbes, and J. Hernandez Nopsa. 2013. Climate change and plant pathogen invasions. In Invasive Species and Climate Change. L. Ziska and J. Dukes, eds. CABI Publishing. In press.

Gomez-Montano, L., A. Jumpponen, M. A. Gonzales, J. Cusicanqui, C. Valdivia, P. Motavalli, M. Herman, and K. A. Garrett. 2013. Do bacterial and fungal communities in soils of the Bolivian Altiplano change under shorter fallow periods? Soil Biology & Biochemistry 65:50-59. [preprint PDF]

Skelsey, P., K. A. With, and K. A. Garrett. 2013. Why dispersal should be maximized at intermediate scales of heterogeneity. Theoretical Ecology 6:203-211. [PDF]

Walthall, C.L., J. Hatfield, P. Backlund, L. Lengnick, E. Marshall, M. Walsh, S. Adkins, M. Aillery, E.A. Ainsworth, C. Ammann, C.J. Anderson, I. Bartomeus, L.H. Baumgard, F. Booker, B. Bradley, D.M. Blumenthal, J. Bunce, K. Burkey, S.M. Dabney, J.A. Delgado, J. Dukes, A. Funk, K. Garrett, M. Glenn, D.A. Grantz, D. Goodrich, S. Hu, R.C. Izaurralde, R.A.C. Jones, S-H. Kim, A.D.B. Leaky, K. Lewers, T.L. Mader, A. McClung, J. Morgan, D.J. Muth, M. Nearing, D.M. Oosterhuis, D. Ort, C. Parmesan, W.T. Pettigrew, W. Polley, R. Rader, C. Rice, M. Rivington, E. Rosskopf, W.A. Salas, L.E. Sollenberger, R. Srygley, C. Stöckle, E.S. Takle, D. Timlin, J.W. White, R. Winfree, L. Wright-Morton, L.H. Ziska. 2013. Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation. USDA Technical Bulletin 1935. Washington, DC. 186 pages. This report is available at:

Garrett, K. A. 2012. Information networks for plant disease: Commonalities in human management networks and within-host signaling networks. [Invited] European Journal of Plant Pathology 133:75-88. [preprint PDF]

Garrett, K. A., A. Jumpponen, C. Toomajian, and L. Gomez-Montano. 2012. Climate change and plant health: Designing research spillover from plant genomics for understanding the role of microbial communities. [Invited] Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 34:349-361. [preprint PDF]

Sutrave, S., C. Scoglio, S. A. Isard, J. M. S. Hutchinson, and K. A. Garrett. 2012. Identifying highly connected counties compensates for resource limitations when evaluating national spread of an invasive pathogen. PLoS ONE 7:e37793. [Open access link]

Beed, F., A. Benedetti, G. Cardinali, S. Chakraborty, T. Dubois, K. Garrett and M. Halewood. 2011. Climate change and micro-organism genetic resources for food and agriculture: State of knowledge, risks and opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [PDF], and available at

Borer, E. T., J. Antonovics, L. L. Kinkel, P. J. Hudson, P. Daszak, M. J. Ferrari, K. A. Garrett, C. R. Parrish, A. F. Read, and D. M. Rizzo. 2011. Bridging taxonomic and disciplinary divides in infectious disease. EcoHealth 8:261-267. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., G. A. Forbes, S. Savary, P. Skelsey, A. H. Sparks, C. Valdivia, A. H. C. van Bruggen, L. Willocquet, A. Djurle, E. Duveiller, H. Eckersten, S. Pande, C. Vera Cruz, and J. Yuen. 2011. Complexity in climate change impacts: A framework for analysis of effects mediated by plant disease. Plant Pathology 60:15-30. [PDF]

Rouse, M. N., A. A. Saleh, A. Seck, K. H. Keeler, S. E. Travers, S. H. Hulbert, and K. A. Garrett. 2011. Genomic and resistance gene homolog diversity of the dominant tallgrass prairie species across the U.S. Great Plains precipitation gradient. PLoS ONE 6:e17641. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017641. [Open access link]

Savary, S., A. Nelson, A. H. Sparks, L. Willocquet, E. Duveiller, G. Mahuku, G. Forbes, K. A. Garrett, D. Hodson, J. Padgham, S. Pande, M. Sharma, J. Yuen, A. Djurle. 2011. International agricultural research tackling the effects of global and climate changes on plant diseases in the developing world. Plant Disease 95:1204-1216. [PDF]

Sparks, A. H., G. A. Forbes, R. J. Hijmans, and K. A. Garrett. 2011. A metamodeling framework for extending the application domain of process-based ecological models. Ecosphere 2:art90. doi: 10.1890/ES11-00128.1 [Open access link]

Garrett, K. A.. 2010. Review of A Practical Guide to Ecological Modelling. Using R as a Simulation Platform by Soetaert and Herman. Quarterly Review of Biology 85:492. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., A. Jumpponen, and L. Gomez Montano. 2010. Emerging plant diseases: What are our best strategies for management? Pages 152-160 in Controversies in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, From Evolution to Energy. Editors E. L. Kleinman, J. A. Delborne, K. A. Cloud-Hansen, and J. Handelsman. Liebert Publishers, New Rochelle, New York. [PDF]

Perez, P., C. Nicklin, O. Dangles, S. Vanek, S. Sherwood, S. Halloy, K. Garrett, and G. Forbes. 2010. Climate change in the High Andes: Implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers. The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability 6:71-88. [PDF]

Saleh, A. A., H. U. Ahmed, T. C. Todd, S. E. Travers, K. A. Zeller, J. F. Leslie, and K. A. Garrett. 2010. Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean, and sorghum. Molecular Ecology 19:79-91. [preprint PDF, the definitive version is available from Garrett or at]

Travers, S. E., Z. Tang, D. Caragea, K. A. Garrett, S. H. Hulbert, J. E. Leach, J. Bai, A. Saleh, A. K. Knapp, P. A. Fay, J. Nippert, P. S. Schnable, and M. D. Smith. 2010. Variation in gene expression of Andropogon gerardii in response to altered environmental conditions associated with climate change. Journal of Ecology 98:374-383. [PDF]
Editor's Choice for March 2010

Webb, K. M., I. Oña, J. Bai, K. A. Garrett, T. Mew, C. M. Vera Cruz, and J. E. Leach. 2010. A benefit of high temperature: Increased effectiveness of a rice bacterial blight disease resistance gene. New Phytologist 185:568-576. [PDF, the definitive version is available at]

Yin, C., K. L. Jones, D. E. Peterson, K. A. Garrett, S. H. Hulbert, and T. C. Paulitz. 2010. Members of soil bacterial communities sensitive to tillage and crop rotation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42:2111-2118. [PDF]

Cheatham, M. R., M. N. Rouse, P. D. Esker, S. Ignacio, W. Pradel, R. Raymundo, A. H. Sparks, G. A. Forbes, T. R. Gordon, and K. A. Garrett. 2009. Beyond yield: Plant disease in the context of ecosystem services. Phytopathology 99:1228-1236. [PDF]
One of the Top 9 Papers of 2009 in Phytopathology

Gadbury, G. L., K. A. Garrett, and D. B. Allison. 2009. Challenges and approaches to statistical design and inference in high dimensional investigations. Pages 181-206 in Plant Systems Biology, Methods in Molecular Biology Series. D. A. Belostotsky, editor. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.

Garrett, K. A., M. Nita, E. D. De Wolf, L. Gomez, and A. H. Sparks. 2009. Plant pathogens as indicators of climate change. Pages 425-437 in Climate and Global Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth. T. Letcher, editor. Elsevier. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., L. N. Zúñiga, E. Roncal, G. A. Forbes, C. C. Mundt, Z. Su, and R. J. Nelson. 2009. Intraspecific functional diversity in hosts and its effect on disease risk across a climatic gradient. Ecological Applications 19:1868-1883. [PDF]
A USAID SANREM CRSP Research Brief summarizing the work

Margosian, M. L., K. A. Garrett, J. M. S. Hutchinson, and K. A. With. 2009. Connectivity of the American agricultural landscape: Assessing the national risk of crop pest and disease spread. BioScience 59:141-151. [PDF] [supplemental figures]

Worapong, J., S. P. Dendy, Z. Tang, D. J. Awl, and K. A. Garrett. 2009. Limiting temperatures for urediniospore germination are low in a systemic rust fungus of tallgrass prairie. Mycologia 101:390-394. [PDF]

Chakraborty, S., J. Luck, G. Hollaway, A. Freeman, R. Norton, K. A. Garrett, K. Percy, A. Hopkins, C. Davis, and D. F. Karnosky. 2008. Impacts of global change on diseases of agricultural crops and forest trees. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 3, No. 054. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A.. 2008. Climate change and plant disease risk. Pages 143-155 in Global Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events: Understanding the Contributions to Infectious Disease Emergence. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [link] [PDF, including other chapters]

Garrett, K. A. and C. M. Cox. 2008. Applied biodiversity science: Managing emerging diseases in agriculture and linked natural systems using ecological principles. Pages 368-386 in Infectious Disease Ecology: Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems. R. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, and V. Eviner, editors. Princeton University Press. [preprint PDF]

Han, X., S. P. Dendy, K. A. Garrett, L. Fang, and M. D. Smith. 2008. Comparison of damage to native and exotic tallgrass prairie plants by natural enemies. Plant Ecology 198:197-210. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., P. D. Esker, and A. H. Sparks. 2007. An introduction to the R programming environment. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-A-2007-1226-02.

Sparks, A. H., P. D. Esker, M. Bates, W. Dall'Acqua, Z. Guo, V. Segovia, S. D. Silwal, S. Tolos, and K. A. Garrett. 2008. Ecology and epidemiology in R: Disease progress over time. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-A-2008-0129-02. Available at NOTE CHANGED ADDRESS!

Esker, P. D., A. H. Sparks, G. Antony, M. Bates, W. Dall'Acqua, E. E. Frank, L. Huebel, V. Segovia, and K. A. Garrett. 2007. Ecology and epidemiology in R: Modeling dispersal gradients. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-A-2007-1226-03. Available at NOTE CHANGED ADDRESS!

Sparks, A. H., P. D. Esker, G. Antony, L. Campbell, E. E. Frank, L. Huebel, M. N. Rouse, B. Van Allen, and K. A. Garrett. 2008. Ecology and epidemiology in R: Spatial pattern analysis. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-A-2008-0129-03. Available at NOTE CHANGED ADDRESS!

Esker, P. D., A. H. Sparks, L. Campbell, Z. Guo, M. N. Rouse, S. D. Silwal, S. Tolos, B. Van Allen, and K. A. Garrett. 2008. Ecology and epidemiology in R: Disease forecasting and validation. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-A-2008-0129-01. Available at NOTE CHANGED ADDRESS!

Garrett, K. A., P. D. Esker, A. H. Sparks, and L. Scharmann. 2007. Writing teaching documents as a class project. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-T-2007-1226-01.
Available at

Bockus, W. W., Z. Su, K. A. Garrett, B. S. Gill, J. P. Stack, R. L. Bowden, A. K. Fritz, K. L. Roozeboom, and T. J. Martin. 2007. Number of experiments needed to determine wheat disease phenotypes for four wheat diseases. Plant Disease 91:103-108. [PDF]

Milliken, G. A., K. A. Garrett, and S. E. Travers. 2007. Experimental design for two-color microarrays applied in a pre-existing split-plot experiment. Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology 6, Article 20. Available at [PDF]

Travers, S. E., M. D. Smith, J. Bai, S. H. Hulbert, J. E. Leach, P. S. Schnable, A. K. Knapp, G. Milliken, P. Fay, A. Saleh, and K. A. Garrett. 2007. Ecological genomics: making the leap from model systems in the lab to native populations in the field. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:19-24. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., S. P. Dendy, E. E. Frank, M. N. Rouse, and S. E. Travers. 2006. Climate change effects on plant disease: Genomes to ecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 44:489-509. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., S. H. Hulbert, J. E. Leach, and S. E. Travers. 2006. Ecological genomics and epidemiology. European Journal of Plant Pathology 115:35-51. [Invited] [PDF]

Al-Naimi, F. A., K. A. Garrett, and W. W. Bockus. 2005. Competition, facilitation, and niche differentiation in two foliar pathogens. Oecologia 143:449-457. [PDF, copyright Springer]

Cox, C. M., K. A. Garrett, and W. W. Bockus. 2005. Meeting the challenge of disease management in perennial grain systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 20:15-24. [PDF]

Cox, C. M., K. A. Garrett, T. S. Cox, W. W. Bockus, and T. Peters. 2005. Reactions of perennial grain accessions to four major cereal pathogens of the Great Plains. Plant Disease 89:1235-1240. [PDF]

Jiang, J., K. A. Garrett, D. E. Peterson, T. L. Harvey, R. L. Bowden, and L. Fang. 2005. The window of risk for emigration of Wheat streak mosaic virus varies with host eradication method. Plant Disease 89:853-858. [PDF]

Cox, C. M., K. A. Garrett, R. L. Bowden, A. K. Fritz, S. P. Dendy, and W. F. Heer. 2004. Cultivar mixtures for the simultaneous management of multiple diseases: Tan spot and leaf rust of wheat. Phytopathology 94:961-969. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., S. P. Dendy, A. G. Power, G. K. Blaisdell, H. A. Alexander, and J. K. McCarron. 2004. Barley yellow dwarf disease in natural populations of dominant tallgrass prairie species in Kansas [Disease Note]. Plant Disease 88:574. [Open access link]

Garrett, K. A., M. Kabbage, and W. W. Bockus. 2004. Managing for fine-scale differences in inoculum load: Seeding patterns to minimize loss to wheat take-all. Precision Agriculture 5:291-301. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., L. V. Madden, G. Hughes, and W. F. Pfender. 2004. New applications of statistical tools in plant pathology. Phytopathology 94:999-1003. [PDF]

Ortiz, O., K. A. Garrett, J. J. Heath, R. Orrego, and R. J. Nelson. 2004. Management of potato late blight in the Andean highlands: Evaluating the benefits of Farmer Participatory Research and Farmer Field Schools. Plant Disease 88:565-571. [PDF]

Rosenberg, M. S., K. A. Garrett, Z. Su, and R. L. Bowden. 2004. Meta-analysis in plant pathology: Methods for research synthesis. Phytopathology 94:1013-1017. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A. and R. L. Bowden. 2002. An Allee effect reduces the invasive potential of Tilletia indica. Phytopathology 92:1152-1159. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A. and S. P. Dendy. 2002. Prácticas culturales para el manejo del tizón tardío de la papa. [Cultural practices for late blight management.] Pages 111-120 in Complementando la Resistencia al Tizón (Phytophthora infestans) en los Andes. E. N. Fernández-Northcote, editor. Global Initiative for Late Blight, Lima, Peru. [PDF]

Mundt, C. C., C. Cowger, and K. A. Garrett. 2002. Relevance of integrated disease management to resistance durability. Euphytica 124:245-252. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., R. J. Nelson, C. C. Mundt, G. Chacón, R. E. Jaramillo, and G. A. Forbes. 2001. The effects of host diversity and other management components on epidemics of potato late blight in the humid highland tropics. Phytopathology 91:993-1000. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and C. C. Mundt. 2000. Effects of planting density and the composition of wheat cultivar mixture on stripe rust: An analysis taking into account limits to the replication of controls. Phytopathology 90:1313-1321. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and C. C. Mundt. 2000. Host diversity can reduce potato late blight severity for focal and general patterns of primary inoculum. Phytopathology 90:1307-1312. [PDF]

Hijmans, R. J., K. A. Garrett, Z. Huamán, D. P. Zhang, M. Schreuder, and M. Bonierbale. 2000. Assessing the geographic representativeness of germplasm collections: the case of the Bolivian wild potato genebank. Conservation Biology 14:1755-1765. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and C. C. Mundt. 1999. Epidemiology in diverse host populations. Phytopathology 89:984-990. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and P. M. Dixon. 1998. When does the spatial pattern of weeds matter? Predictions from neighborhood models. Ecological Applications 8:1250-1259. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and H. F. Schwartz. 1998. Epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae on dry beans treated with copper-based bactericides. Plant Disease 82:30-35. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A., and P. M. Dixon. 1997. Environmental pseudointeraction: The effects of ignoring the scale of environmental heterogeneity in competition studies. Theoretical Population Biology 51:37-48.

Garrett, K. A. 1997. Use of statistical tests of equivalence (bioequivalence tests) in plant pathology. Phytopathology 87:372-374. [PDF]

Garrett, K. A. 1995. Selecting a method for sampling weed densities: The case of weed removal in strips. Weed Science 43:394-401.

VanGessel, M. J., E. E. Schweizer, K. A. Garrett, and P. Westra. 1995. Influence of weed densities and spatial patterns on corn yield. Weed Science 43:215-218.

Dixon, P. M., and K. A. Garrett. 1994. Statistical Issues for Field Experimenters. Pages 439-450 in Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling: Integrated Studies of Agroecosystems. R. J. Kendall and T. E. Lacher, Jr., editors. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.

Dixon, P. M., and K. A. Garrett. 1993. Sampling ecological information: Choice of sample size, reconsidered. Ecological Modelling 68:67-73.

Kansas State University

Department of Plant Pathology

Ecological Genomics Institute

PI: Karen A. Garrett