Arthropod Containment Levels
Arthropod Containment Level 1 (ACL-1) Facilities
ACL-1 containment addresses activities with uninfected arthropod vectors or those infected with a non-pathogen including: arthropods that are already present in the local geographic region regardless of whether there is active vector borne disease transmission in the locale and exotic arthropods that upon escape would be inviable or become only temporarily established in areas not having active vector-borne disease transmission. The ACL-1 facilities have restricted access and are separated from the flow of general traffic. The doors are covered by plastic sheets with inward directional airflow. The area is maintained to allow detection of escaped arthropods. Work areas and primary containers are cleaned and disinfected. A pest exclusion program and mechanism of monitoring arthropod escape is in place.
Arthropod Containment Level 2 (ACL-2) Facilities
ACL-2 containment addresses activities using exotic and indigenous arthropods infected with BSL-2 agents associated with animal and/or human disease, or that are suspected of being infected with such agents. Uninfected genetically modified arthropod vectors also fall under this level provided the modification has no, or only negative effects on viability, survivorship, host range, or vector capacity. ACL-2 facilities have restricted access and are physically separated from general traffic areas by at least two self-closing doors that prevent direct escape of flying and crawling arthropods. A pest exclusion program should be in place. Mechanisms for preventing harborage and escape through drains, penetrations and other portals are considered. Illumination strategies of the facility are considered to reduce escape. Special practices are implemented for blood feeding.
Arthropod Containment Level 3 (ACL-3) Facilities
ACL-3 containment addresses practices suitable for work with potential or known vectors that are, or may be infected with, BSL-3 agents associated with human disease. Arthropods that are infected or potentially infected with BSL-3 agents may pose an additional hazard if the arthropod containment level 3 room is located in an area where the species is indigenous, or if alternative suitable vectors are present, as an escaped arthropod may introduce the pathogen into the local population. ACL-3 builds upon the practices, procedures, containment equipment, and facility requirements of ACL-2. It differs in that access is more restricted, and the microbiological containment takes a more prominent role in determining the practices and facilities. The use of sharps must be restricted. Floor drains are not recommended. HEPA filtration on both supply and exhaust air is recommended. An accurate inventory and labeling system for tracking arthropods is recommended. All work with arthropods is performed in specialized arthropod handling containers. Biosafety cabinets or appropriate primary barrier are used when infecting arthropods.