Research and Resources
NABC helps enhance emergency preparedness and biosecurity knowledge and best practices. Below is a sampling of available tools and resources.
State Animal Health Official (SAHO) Covid-19 Survey & Impact Assessment
The National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Defense Division, designed an impact assessment, Applying Lessons Learned from the Covid-19 Response to a Future High-Consequence Food or Agriculture Incident with the intention of capturing overarching themes, challenges, and recently identified gaps in the food and animal agricultural space as was revealed in the initial and ongoing response to Covid-19.
The survey was sent to all 50 State Animal Health Officials. Officials were asked 1) if there were lessons to be learned from the COVID-19 response that had implications for a foreign animal disease outbreak; 2) if they would incorporate these lessons into existing animal disease response plans; 3) to identify the types of support that would be most effective at improving incident preparedness; and 4) their level of confidence in the nation’s ability to respond to a high consequence foreign disease incident.
Livestock Emergency Response Planning Toolkit
This toolkit is designed to assist state, tribal, and territorial government entities in developing an Emergency Operations Plan for responding to a livestock-related emergency such as an infectious or highly contagious foreign or emerging animal disease affecting poultry, exotic, and domestic livestock. The toolkit is separated into several PDF files.
Right click to download.
Food Emergency Response Plan
A food-related emergency involves the adulteration and/or contamination, threatened or actual, of food, that affects or may affect human health. This response plan applies to food emergencies that may involve a large number of people in a small area or that are widespread, involving a number of localities or states. The National Association of State Departments of Agriculture Food Emergency Response Plan (pdf) template and supplemental information (pdf) documents are designed to help develop a seamless system of food defense between local, state, and federal jurisdictions.
Classical Swine Fever Pathways Analysis
The threat of agroterrorism and increased globalization of trade and travel have increased concern for either intentional or accidental introduction of a foreign animal disease to the U.S. Classical Swine Fever was eradicated from the U.S. but remains endemic in many regions of the world. NABC's CSF Pathways Analysis (pdf) evaluates the pathways by which CSF could enter the country, describes the risks for dissemination of the virus, and overviews detection methods and surveillance strategies.
Ruminant Carcass Disposal Options for Routine and Catastrophic Mortality
Animal agriculture is an enormous industry in the United States, and it is critical to address specific agricultural security challenges that accompany it, such as carcass disposal. Death losses, also referred to as mortalities, may be classified broadly as either routine or catastrophic. This Issue Paper, Ruminant Carcass Disposal Options for Routine and Catastrophic Mortality, provides a critical, scientific assessment of the predominant methods for carcass disposal in commercial ruminant production.
National Institute or Justice Agroterrorism Report
NIJ authorized an in-depth study Defining Law Enforcement’s Role in Protecting American Agriculture from Agroterrorism (pdf) to determine law enforcement's role in protecting against acts of agroterrorism. Through interactive focus groups, input was obtained from law enforcement, livestock producers, meat packers, truckers, feedlot managers, and animal health officials. Research methodology also included two simulation exercises; field surveys; field interviews; and results of preventive measures initiated on a trial basis in Kansas.
Carcass Disposal: A Comprehensive Review
Animal agriculture comprises a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector. The enormity of US animal agriculture magnifies a number of agricultural security problems, one of which is carcass disposal. Whether at the hand of accidental disease entry, the weather, or an act of bioterrorism, widespread livestock deaths pose daunting carcass-disposal challenges that, if not met quickly and effectively, can spiral into major food security problems and result in devastating economic losses. NABC's Carcass Disposal: A Comprehensive Review examines the ever-increasing concentration of modern animal production operations, combined with the tremendous mobility of food-animal populations, accentuating the country’s vulnerability to high death losses due to disease outbreaks.
Agroterrorism: Preparedness and Response Challenges for the Departments of Defense and Army
This paper addresses the concepts of agroterrorism, current initiatives within government, private industry and academia, and identifies the policy and resource gaps (pdf) impacting national preparedness for such an attack. Despite the identification of agriculture as one of the critical infrastructure sectors of the United States and the importance of food security being stressed within Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs), resources and energy applied to aggressively defend against agroterrorism within the larger scheme of domestic security programs has been decidedly skewed. The difficult work of providing definitive policy guidance and adequate resources to counter the threat of a deliberate attack on one of our critical infrastructures has not been commensurate with the level of possible damage to our economy, national confidence and standing within the greater global community.
Plant Pathogen Pathways Analysis
Analysis of potential pathways for exotic disease entry and establishment, and assessment of U.S. capacity to minimize the impact of such an introduction can form a basis for developing safeguards to ensure rapid detection, containment and mitigation in the event of an attack. NABC's Plant Pathway Analyses (pdf) provides a tool for assessing the potential threat of an introduced plant pathogen to the U.S. and thereby help policy makers allocate resources wisely.
Technical Information Reporting Guides
These guides use easily understood terminology and are written for nonscientific personnel to use to communicate with diagnostic labs, veterinarians, and other officials responsible for animal health as they work to recognize and address disease outbreaks. Read a sample on Peste Des Petits Ruminants, or PPR (pdf). Contact NABC to obtain guides on the following topics:
- African Horse Sickness
- African Swine Fever
- Classical Swine Fever
- Equine Encephalomyelitis
- Foot-and-Mouth Disease
- Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Infection
- Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
- Newcastle Disease
- Peste Des Petits Ruminants
- Rift Valley Fever
Veterinary Response Capabilities Country Profiles
NABC characterized the agricultural and veterinary capabilities of countries in 2011 to determine their capacity to plan and respond to a high-consequence animal/zoonotic disease outbreak or event. Information for the reports was gathered from open-source documentation and personal interviews with people involved in the animal health industry in the countries. PDF executive summaries and abridged reports are below. For more information, contact NABC.
Animal Disease Response Training
NABC personnel offer Animal Disease Response Training to help local and county emergency responders know what to do in an animal disease outbreak. Read news about the training or request more information by filling out the form below.