HUMAN FACTORS: WILL ONE SIZE EVEN FIT MOST?!
TITLE PAGE ROW: Line of people figures hand in hand, from POLIS project.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The No. 4 Missions will help YOUth understand:
- The importance of allowing for individual human differences when designing products and places to be universally usable.
- The roles that anthropometrics and ergonomics play in human-factored design of products and man-machine systems FOR ALL.
WORD BANK: Human factors, posture, anthropometric/human scale standards, ergonomic, bio-mechanics, man-machine systems, usability testing, workplace design, ambidextrous, stigmatize, empathic simulation,
Unraveling the Backpack Overload Mystery
The Human Factored Design Rationale
Despite SouthPaw Trials, Lefties Rock!
Anthropometric (Human Scale) Standards (includes Anthro drawing)
The Anthro LINEUP
Ergonomic Designing (includes Ergonomics pre-test)
Computer Workplace Design
Product Usability Testing (with REAL humans!)
Advanced Option: Empathic Simulation Experience (Guide must approve use; instructions start on next page after L4 detailed overview)
Backpack kids on bench, from Target Stores
Anthropometric figure drawing (dimensions most used by designers of interiors)
Ergonomic Seating: Mambo Stool, Swopper, Chool, Mirra and Freedom chairs Ergonomic, height-adjustable work surfaces
EIT at Work: Teen guy with earphones
Standards and Anthropometry for Wheeled Mobility (2005 report online)
Design for Inclusion: Creating A New Marketplace (for EIT, 2004 report)
Mambo Stool, winner of A Place to Sit Competition (Boston)
Famous Lefthanders (and) SouthPaw Frustrations
www.indiana.edu/~primate/left.html (may have to go deeply into this site)
Iowa State University Extension Awesome, Extensive UD web site:
21st Century Universal Design Conference online Proceedings (look for presentations on human factors, e.g. Tobias on Monitoring the Market...)
Dynamic Living catalog: Gadgets that make life easier
- Universal Design is not a trend, but an enduring design approach that assumes that the range of human ability is ordinary, not 'special' (Ostroff).
- UD is NOT special, NOT institutional, and need NOT be expensive. The world's people do NOT have Aspecial@ needsBJUST needs (Beall).
- In the workplace, tangible results of UD can include reduced human errors, increased productivity, fewer sick days, and lower employee turnover (Vanderheiden).
- In Information Technology, accessibility produces flex for ALL, and if done correctly, industry designs mass-market products with NO special line for...
Lesson 4 LEARNING ACTIVITY CHOICES: including Empathic Sims
Anthropometrics teen group lineup to compare differences
1. Human-Factored Universal Product Scavenger Hunt
2. Universal Design
Advanced Option: EMPATHIC SIMS SENSITIVITY EXPERIENCE
Empathic Simulations are not quite like the fun 'Sims' computer games, but they ARE very educational. Empathic Sims allow you to experience TEMPORARILY the common limitations that older adults and people with disabilities may live with: Hearing loss, low vision, painful arthritis symptoms, and the need to use a wheelchair or other assistive device.
To make these sims effective, have persons with disabilities observe, offer their own insights and realities, AND serve as de-briefers following each exercise. Go ahead and read the following section, but DO NOT do the sims without them!
INSTRUCTIONS: Youth with Inquiring Minds should work in pairs, alternately serving as Subject and Observer/Safety guardian. Each pair needs to complete the sequence only once. Both should have pencil and notepaper ready.
During each exercise, the Observer records everything, while the Subject may jot down key words for personal reactions and questions to jog the memory during the following discussion.
For each activity, the Aprops@necessary to complete the exercise are bolded within the instructions. In addition, a composite/total 'equipment list' follows the last exercise.
HEARING IMPAIRMENT: Use inexpensive, industrial earplugs (two cotton balls may do), inserting them firmly into both ears.
- Partners sit next to a tape recorder, with its volume set at mid-level. Prepare to write down the SECOND complete sentence spoken on the tape, just as you hear it. Press the play button, listen and write.
- Next, with a static-y radio on low behind the Subject, partners should discuss (Q & A) their reactions to No. 1 above. Both may note if/how the radio noise affects the Subject's ability to understand his/her Observer.
Switch Subject and Observer roles for Nos. 3-4.
- Turn vacuum cleaner on (5 feet away) and repeat No. 1, BUT write down the THIRD tape-recorded sentence. Compare notes and reactions.
- With the Subject facing the other way, the Observer will describe (in about six sentences) the most recent movie or DVD seen. After three sentences, the Subject turns to face the Recorder, who completes his/her review in a few more sentences. Stop and discuss any differences in understanding the speaker while turned away vs. face to face.
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT: For the low vision experience, use safety/lab glasses first with lenses covered by a yellow cellophane insert cut to fit over the nose behind the lenses. Next, smear lenses fully with petroleum jelly.
- Turn out the lights, then have (blind-folded) partners count their coins and paper money. Lights on: Were your totals correct? If so, how
did you do it?
- Subject will examine 2-3 patterned fabric swatches (approximately 6" X 6" in size) through the yellow lenses. Describe the pattern and colors of each to the Recorder. Remove glasses and compare notes and reactions.
Switch Subject and Recorder roles for Nos. 3-4.
- Through smeared lenses, read a book paragraph aloud as the Recorder checks for accuracy and notes the distance from eyes to the page. Compare reactions and notes.
- With the same blurred vision, pick out the designated can(s) from a row of spices. Compare reactions and notes.
ARTHRITIS EFFECTS: Wrap layers of adhesive or masking tape tightly around Subject's last finger joints, then across the knuckles and palm of the hand s/he uses most frequently, then:
- Subject tries to turn twist-type faucet knobs on and off at kitchen and/or bathroom sinks. Do the same with a lever handle. Compare reactions and notes.
- Subject slips a shirt on over clothing and tries to button it. Compare reactions and notes.
Subject and Observer switch roles for Nos. 3-4.
- New Subject signs his/her name with their NON-dominant hand, then has Observer read it aloud. Discuss....
- Subject puts a glove (with toothpicks in each finger) on either hand, then tries to turn a few door knobs without breaking the tooth-picks. Discuss...
MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: With the Observer for emergency-only help, Subject uses a manual wheelchair for at least two hours (better yet, a half-day) to:
- Enter a NON-accessible public bathroom, enter a stall, transfer on and off the toilet, and use a sink to wash and dry hands. Note stall dimensions, any grab bars, plus sink and paper towel access features. Were they usable and located where needed? Repeat procedure in an accessible bathroom, if possible. Compare reactions and notes.
- Move up and down an incline (about 10 feet long) that poses a challenge but isn't steep enough to be dangerous. Note its angle (for example, drops more or less than 1" in 12").
- Go to a 7-11 or grocery store to see how many shelves are UNreachable from the chair. What types of items could NOT be reached? Did the size, shape, or weight of the desired item make a difference? Was it safely possible to carry needed items on the driver's lap, or was a scooter with a basket available and usable?
- Find a pedestrian crosswalk at a stoplight, and cross the street with the light. Was the light long enough to navigate the chair across the street before changing? (How) did waiting drivers and fellow pedestrians react to you or the chair?
POST-SIMS REACTION AND REALITY DISCUSSION:
- After hearing reactions from the youth, de-briefers will open a discussion of the commonalities between themselves and the teens (e.g., values, life goals, political opinions, pet peeves, food, etc. likes/dislikes).
Next, seek reactions to determine individual dis/agreement with the following conclusion: People with disabilities have the same wants and needs as everyone else.
- Next, de-briefers open the floor to discuss what the temporarily inconvenienced youth learned from the sims. Silently check off any comments that repeat or are similar to statements A and B below.
Assumed lead-in: >It's really tough to live in our inaccessible and negative-attitudes-toward-people-with-disabilities world.
A. I feel so sorry for these people because they suffer so much pain.
Explain: The resultant feelings of pity and woe may lead to a paternalistic society that believes that people with disabilities must be assisted.
B. It's amazing how these people do it because I found it so difficult!
Explain: The resultant feelings of admiration for people who overcome such challenges may lead to comments such as, People with disabilities are super-heroes or so very special.
After all reactions, de-briefers will call attention to and explain comments that sounded like A or B, then read or paraphrase the following:
Perceptions such as A and B can cause stereotyping of persons with disabilities. Further, they do NOT lead to an understanding of individual differences in levels of physical or mental functions and personalities among people, even those with similar disabilities or causes.
COMPOSITE SIMS' EQUIPMENT LIST:
- Inexpensive industrial earplugs or cotton balls
- Tape recorder w/tape of person reading paragraph
- Radio with static
- Vacuum cleaner
- Safety/lab glasses/goggles
- Piece of yellow cellophane cut to slip inside lens
- Small jar of petroleum jelly
- Coin purse or wall with coins and paper money
- Patterned fabric swatches, including bright/dull,
large small, one With a yellowish background/pattern
- Book to record paragraph and read aloud from
- Row of spices on cabinet shelf above eye level
- Roll of adhesive or masking tape
- Button-front shirt
- Somewhat fitted glove
- Manual wheelchair
ON- OFF-SITE REQUIREMENTS:
Accessible and non-accessible bathrooms
Sinks with knob handles and with lever handles
Doors with knobs and with lever handles
Kitchen wall cabinets
7-11 or grocery store
Pedestrian crosswalk at a stop light
Sidewalk on a not-too-steep incline (NO MORE THAN 1-foot drop in 12 feet)