The People's Liberation Army
William W. Whitson, The Chinese High Command (New York: Praeger, 1973 ) provides substantial accounts of Chinese Communist military operations in the civil wars and the anti-Japanese war, together with analysis of factionalism in the Chinese military leadership. Two classic studies of the PLA under Mao are Harlan W. Jencks, From Muskets to Missiles: Politics and Professionalism in the Chinese Army, 1945-1981 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982), and Harvey W. Nelsen, The Chinese Military System (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1977). For the post-Mao reforms, see Ellis Joffe, The Chinese Army after Mao (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987). Books and articles on more recent developments in the Chinese military are legion. See, for example, China's Military in Transition, edited by David Shambaugh and Richard H. Yang (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). James Mulvenon, Soldiers of Fortune (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2001) is an exhaustive study of the PLA's commercial activities.