Philip Nel's English 695: African American Children's Literature
|ABSTRACT DUE:||In class, 5 Nov. 2015.|
|ABSTRACT LENGTH:||500 words.|
|PAPER DUE:||In my mailbox, 4 Dec. 2015.|
|PAPER LENGTH:||9-10 pages.|
Your paper should offer a persuasive argument about one or two of the literary works on the syllabus. If you are choosing two works and you would like to use one work not on the syllabus, you may do so only if you check with me first. A persuasive argument requires a thesis, supporting evidence from the text(s) (direct as well as indirect support), and explanation of that evidence. Your paper should have an introduction which states the thesis, body paragraphs providing the support and explanation of that support, a conclusion, and a "Works Cited" page. (Further guidelines are below.)
If you're looking for a place to intervene in the critical conversation, the course syllabus objectives offer some big questions that should give you a place to start (your paper will need to define its answer in such a way that it can be addressed in your paper, of course):
How do we define African American Children's Literature? On what is the African American-ness predicated? (The author's cultural background? Specific literary or cultural traditions within the text? If the "-ness" depends on the book representing "the Black experience," how might we define that experience?) How does the publishing industry shape the field of African American Children's Literature? (Why so much realism and historical fiction and so little fantasy, science fiction, and graphic novels?) Finally, how has African American children's literature developed? In 1932, Langston Hughes wrote that overcoming a "racial inferiority complex" was "one of the greatest tasks of the teachers" of black children; in 1965, Nancy Larrick lamented "the All- White World of Children's Books"; in 2010, Jerry Pinkney became the individual African American to win the Caldecott Medal. Where is African American children's literature now, and where is it going?
These are big questions. So, as I say, should you pursue one of them, you'll want to find a way to address them in a way that's manageable in your paper.
Whatever argument you elect to advance, please situate your claims in context. Choose one or two contexts (historical, critical, biographical, etc.) that you feel are relevant and, in your opening paragraph, establish why they are relevant. You may use the same book and same topic that you used for leading class discusison or that you addressed in a response paper, but you don't have to use that book or that topic. If you seek ideas for contexts, look at the criticism — both that in our class pack, and that which you discover via research (MLA database, etc).
Situate your argument is in relation to critical discussions about the author's or authors' work. Plan to include at least two other critical voices alongside your own. If, as may be the case, there is no (or very little) critical discussion about the work(s) in question, then simply rely upon other contexts (see above paragraph). By "two other critical voices" I mean one (or more) of the following: a critical essay (or book chapter), the author's own comments, book reviews, or other media. Position your argument in relation to the others'. Perhaps you disagree with another critic; perhaps you agree; perhaps you agree with some ideas and disagree with others. Where are you intervening in this discussion?
You might decide, first, what you want to argue and then see what others have written. Then you can see where you'll be intervening in the discussion. Once you figure out with whom you disagree with and/or agree (and why in each case), you'll be able to sharpen your thesis accordingly. A word of advice about secondary sources: since the primary piece of evidence is the literary text or texts, remember to include examples from the work(s) of literature to support your claims.
Write an abstract of no more than 500 words. In it, include the claims you plan to make about your selected text(s), outlining what questions you wish to pursue and the argument you plan to make. (Obviously, these claims may change as you write, but try to outline the direction of your thoughts.) Also include a bibliography of at least three sources you plan to read to assist the development of your ideas. For a model, I've provided you with a sample abstract of mine. The difference between your abstract and my abstract is only this: yours will include some sources, and mine doesn't.
Where should you look for critical resources? Try databases such as the MLA Bibliography (scholarly articles in journals and books), Project Muse (houses many on-line journals), the Hale library catalog (scholarly books), InfoTrack (some scholarly articles and book reviews), or Lexis-Nexis (book reviews since 1985 in British and American periodicals), and any other resources. You may use websites, but only alongside of other resources.
If you do use websites, be especially careful to evaluate your sources: not all websites are equal. For example, consider the following: an article from the New York Times Book Review, "Customer Comments" at Amazon.com, a corporate website, an educational website, or a site representing a particular interest (say, the Green Party). To evaluate each website, ask yourself: whose interests does this site serve? For example, is it a .edu (education), .org (organization), .com (commercial), .gov (government), etc.? Who wrote it? What are the author's credentials? Is she an expert in her field? Or is he not identified?
I will read over the prospectus and offer comments and suggestions, but please feel free to meet with me before or after you've written your prospectus.
1. Read and Reread; formulate a provisional thesis. Read and reread the work or works you've decided to write about, with a mind to the topic you have chosen. Take careful notes, making note of all relevant words, phrases, images, and illustrations. Formulate a provisional thesis.
2. Consider the context(s). Consider the work in light of the context or contexts you have chosen. How does a particular context prove useful in understanding the book in question? What are the limitations of using this context? Decide how you will be using context (or contexts) to interpret the work.
3. Evaluate your secondary sources. What are the scholars' arguments? Read and reread the literary work or works in question, with a mind to the scholar's claims, your claims, and evidence (or lack thereof) for both you and the scholar. On what sort of evidence does the scholar's article rely? Is it persuasive? What about your evidence? How does the literary text support your position? How might the work's historical, cultural, or social context influence your thinking?
Writing the Paper.
1. The introduction:a. Where does your paper fit into this discussion? Where do your secondary sources' arguments intersect with your own? Plan to devote your introductory paragraph to positioning your thesis in relation to others'. If you're opening up a new area of scholarship, then begin by noting the shortcomings of your predecessors' arguments. If, on the other hand, your work seems in accord with that of others, begin by indicating how your thesis supports or extends their arguments. And if you find that some arguments support yours and others do not, then you'll be doing a mix of the above. Whatever the case may be, conclude your introductory paragraph with a statement of your own thesis.
b. State your thesis. Make sure your thesis is specific enough to be covered adequately in the space of your discussion. Remember: merely noting a difference or similarity does not constitute a thesis. Refer to the handout titled "Thesis vs. Topic."
2. Each paragraph should begin with a claim. Just as a thesis claim guides the paper as a whole, a paragraph's claim (often referred to as a "topic sentence") guides a paragraph. So, at or near the beginning of each paragraph, include a topic sentence that states your paragraph's central argument. The topic sentence serves as a bridge between thesis and paragraph by making an interpretive claim that indicates how the paragraph will support your thesis.
3. Provide support. To persuade your readers to your position, you will need to provide some evidence in support of your claims. Quotations or illustrations from the picturebook should be used as evidence to prove your assertions.
4. Analysis and explanation of evidence. Be sure to analyze the quotation or illustration and discuss its significance. Explain for your reader how your evidence supports your claims.
5. Conclusion. Your last paragraph should synthesize, not summarize. You should resolve -- and not merely repeat -- your argument. Think of a conclusion this way: it both reminds your reader of where you've been and suggests new areas to explore.
And, after you finish your draft...
1. Revise and edit. Read your paper out loud to yourself. Often you will hear what your eyes will miss.
2. Grammar and structure are important. To help yourself proofread and revise with both of these ideas in mind, please see the handout titled "Keys to Structure and Style."
3. When in doubt, get help. My office hours are on the syllabus, and by appointment. My email address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Also, please make use of a grammar handbook and of the handouts linked to this paper assignment: "Imagery and Figurative Language," "Thesis vs. Topic," and "Keys to Structure and Style."