English 233: Introduction to Western
Humanities - Baroque & Enlightenment
Reading List #2:
- The Protestant Reformation
- and the Catholic
- the rift within the traditional
Christian conception of providential authority
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The material in this reading list, together with the class
discussions pertaining to it, should put you on a sound footing
to approach a good many of the questions you will encounter on
the in-class portion of Exam #1. You will find a link to
the prep sheet for this portion of the exam on the general page
on Examinations. It would be a
good idea to acquire a copy of that prep sheet to have on hand as
you work your way through these readings.
- This first reading could just as well have been listed
right after item 12 on Reading List #1. In
justification" we expand what we have so far
said on salvation theory by introducing a perspective
that was early on rejected as heresy by what succeeded in
establishing itself as orthodox Christianity within the
Roman Empire, but which will re-emerge, though
marginally, within the Protestant Reformation, and become
more and more prominent during the Enlightenment of the
18th Century. This is the position
known as Pelagianism. We look at it from the
standpoint of a Post-Reformation heir (the Catholic
Encyclopedia of 1913) of the schola antigua
(Thomism) and from that of the most uncomromising
Reformation heir (Calvinism) of the schola
augustiniana. Our purpose at this
moment is to use it as a foil to throw into even
sharper relief the features of the Augustinian and
Thomistic pictures of God's plan for accomplishing his
plan for history.
- Next it is important to review the material in WH
on the medieval sacramental system, monasticism, and
scholasticism (3:215-220; 2:217-222),
the Protestant Reformation (3:329-334;
and the Counter-Reformation (3:334-335;
- We then undertake to read some of the key writings of Martin Luther.
Among the items to which links are given from the page
just cited, the following are most important for our
purposes. (Consult the Course Schedule to discover
which are required this semester.)
- (3.1) the Ninety-Five
- (3.2) the Study Guide
to the "Ninety-Five Theses"
- (3.3) Luther's
description (1543) of his moment of saving theological
insight (c.1519) -- the so-called "Tower
- (3.4) Luther's
definition of "faith" in his Commentary on St.
Paul's Letter to the Romans (1522)
- (3.5) his declaration
before the Diet of Worms (1521)
- (3.6) Luther's
treatise "The Freedom of a Christian
- (3.7) the Study Guide
to Luther's mature theology
- We read some important excerpts from the writings of John Calvin and some
of his followers. The required readings
are the following:
- (4.1) review of relevant material in WH
- (4.2) an excerpt from The Institutes of
the Christian Religion on the role of God in history
(salvation & damnation).
- (4.3) a dispute between Calvin and Bishop
Sadoleto over the proper end of man.
- (4.4) Study Guide to the previous item.
We look into some further divisions within the Protestant
camp: antinomians and anabaptists (or, as they called
- (5.1) excerpt from Thomas Münzer's
"Sermon to the Princes" (1524).
- (5.2) excerpt from Münzer's call to the
peasants to establish Christian justice
- (5.3) excerpt from Luther's exhortation
to the German Princes to crush the peasants in revolt.
- (5.4) excerpt from Münzer's
counter-attack upon Luther.
- (5.5) Robert
Browning, "Johannes Agricola in Meditation"
(18 ) -- the mentality of a 16th-century
antinomian, as imagined by a 19th-century English poet.
We try in two ways to bring into sharper focus our sense of
the crisis in authority wrought by this religious
conflict. The first is to look closely at the
implications of the concept of idolatry
within the context of the schism.
The second is to consider effects of the multifarious civil conflicts and wars unleashed
by the controversy.
We then turn to some results
of the Council of Trent concerning beliefs required of
Catholics in the wake of the Protestant Reformation.
Finally we take up the phenomenon of "Roman baroque
art" (alias "the ecclesiastical baroque") as an
expression of an increasingly confident
Counter-Reformation. By way of contrast, we will
briefly look at a very few examples of High Renaissance and
Mannerist painting. Then we will concentrate on a carefully
selected set of works by Michaelangelo Caravaggio and Gianlorenzo
- (9.1) WH (3:308-310,
314-315): Leonardo DaVinci's The Last
Supper (1495-98) and Raphael's The School of
- (9.2) WH (3:328, 344-345,
El Greco's The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586) and
Tintoretto's The Last Supper (1592-94).
- (9.3) WH (3:358-366;
The florid baroque: Bernini, Caravaggio, Artimesia
Gentileschi, Andrea Pozzo, Rubens, Velazquez.
- (9.4) Be sure to print out a copy of "The
Logical Structure of an Art-Historical Period Style
- (9.5) For links to lots of downloadable graphics,
especially on Caravaggio and Bernini, go to our page on Roman baroque art.
Return to Master List of Reading Lists.
Go back to Reading List #1.
Go forward to Reading List#3.
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Contents copyright © 1997 by Lyman A.
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This page last updated 14 September 1997.