Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biophysics
141 Chalmers Hall
Manhattan, KS 66506
785-532-6121
785-532-7278 fax
biochem@k-state.edu



Biotechnology Core Facility
206 Burt Hall
785-532-5956
785-532-6297 fax



Biomolecular NMR Facility
37 Chalmers Hall
785-532-2345

Karl Kramer, Ph.D., Emeritus Adjunct Professor
Research Chemist (retired) at CGAHR

Complete publications list

1970s | 1980s | 1990s | 2000s | 2010s

1970s

1. Kramer, K. J. 1971. Chemical Modifications of Lysozyme. Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson. 123 pp. (Ph. D. Dissertation)

2. Felsted, R. L., Kramer, K. J., Law, J. H., Berger, E. and Kafatos, F. 1973. Cocoonase IV. Mechanism of activation of Antheraea polyphemus prococoonase. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 3012-3020.

3. Kramer, K. J., Felsted, R. L., Law, J. H., Berger, E. and Kafatos, F. 1973. Cocoonase V. Structural studies on an invertebrate serine protease. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 3021-3028.

4. Kramer, K. J. and Rupley, J. A. 1973. Sulfanilation of lysozyme. Reactivity of individual carboxyl groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156, 414-425.

5. Kramer, K. J., Ong, J. and Law, J. H. 1973. Oothecal proteins of the oriental praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis. Insect Biochem. 3, 297-302.

6. Kramer, K. J. and Rupley, J. A. 1973. Acid-catalyzed esterification of lysozyme in methanol. Reactivity of individual carboxyl groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 158, 566-576.

7. Kramer, K. J., Sanburg, L. L., Kezdy, F. J. and Law, J. H. 1974. The juvenile hormone binding protein in the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 493-497.

8. Miller, J. W., Kramer, K. J. and Law, J. H. 1974. Isolation and partial characterization of the larval midgut trypsin from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 48B, 117-129.

9. Heinrikson, R. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1974. Recent advances in the chemical modification and covalent structural analysis of proteins. In: Progress in Bioorganic Chemistry, Vol. 3, (E. T. Kaiser and F. J. Kezdy, eds.), Wiley-Interscience, p. 141-250.

10. Sanburg, L. L., Kramer, K. J., Kezdy, F. J. and Law, J. H. 1975. Juvenile hormone specific esterases in the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). J. Insect Physiol. 21, 873-887.

11. Sanburg, L. L., Kramer, K. J., Kezdy, F. J., Law, J. H. and Oberlander, H. 1975. Role of juvenile hormone esterases and carrier proteins in insect development. Nature 253, 266-267.

12. Akamatsu, Y., Dunn, P. E., Kezdy, F. J., Kramer, K. J., Law, J. H., Reibstein, D. and Sanburg, L. L. 1975. Biochemical aspects of juvenile hormone action in insects. In: Control Mechanisms in Development, (R. H. Meints and E. Davies, eds.), Plenum Publishing Corp., p. 123-149.

13. Tager, H. S., Markese, J., Kramer, K. J., and Speirs, R. D. 1975. Glucagon-like immunoreactivity in insect corpus cardiacum. Nature 254, 707-708.

14. McGregor, H. E. and Kramer, K. J. 1975. Activity of insect growth regulators, hydroprene and methoprene, on wheat and corn against several stored grain insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 68, 668-670.

15. Tager, H. S., Markese, J., Kramer, K. J., Speirs, R. D. and Childs, C. N. 1976. Glucagon-like and insulin-like hormones of the insect neurosecretory system. Biochem. Journal 156, 515-520.

16. McGregor, H. E. and Kramer, K. J. 1976. Activity of Dimilin (TH 6040) against Coleoptera in stored wheat and corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 69, 479-480.

17. Kramer, K. J., Dunn, P. E., Peterson, R. C. and Law, J. H. 1976. Interaction of juvenile hormone with binding proteins in insect hemolymph. In: The Juvenile Hormones, (L. I. Gilbert, ed.), Plenum Publishing Corp., p. 327-341.

18. Kramer, K. J., Dunn, P. E., Peterson, R. C., Seballos, H. L., Sanburg, L. L. and Law, J. H. 1976. Purification and characterization of the carrier protein for juvenile hormone from the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). J. Biol. Chem. 251, 4979-4985.

19. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1976. Evaluation of hexadecyl cyclopropanecarboxylate for preventive control of the mold mite in stored grain. J. Econ. Entomol. 69, 637-638.

20. Bulla, L. A., Kramer, K. J., Bechtel, D. B., and Davidson, L. I. 1976. Entomocidal proteinaceous crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis. In: Microbiology 1976, (D. Schlessinger, ed.), American Soc. Microbiol., Washington, D.C., p. 534-539.

21. Kramer, K. J. 1976. Selective biochemical approaches to insect control. In: Proc. Joint U. S.-Japan Seminar on Stored Product Insects, (R. B. Mills, L. A. Bulla and S. Utida, eds.), Kansas State Univ. Press, p. 226-243.

22. Kramer, K. J., Tager, H. S., Childs, C. N. and Speirs, R. D. 1977. Insulin-like hypoglycemic and immunological activities in honeybee royal jelly. J. Insect Physiol. 23, 293-295.

23. Law, J. H., Dunn, P. E. and Kramer, K. J. 1977. Insect proteases and peptidases. In: Advances in Enzymology, Vol. 45, (A. Meister, ed.), John Wiley, p. 389-425.

24. Schesser, J. H., Kramer, K. J. and Bulla, L. A. 1977. Bioassay for homogenous parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis to the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 878-880.

25. Bulla, L. A., Kramer, K. J. and Davidson, L. I. 1977. Characterization of the entomocidal parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 130, 375-383.

26. Kramer, K. J. and Childs, C. N. 1977. Interaction of juvenile hormone with carrier proteins and hydrolases from insect hemolymph. Insect. Biochem. 7, 397-403.

27. Bulla, L. A., Kramer, K. J. and Speirs, R. D. 1978. Insects and microorganisms in stored grain and their control. In: Adv. Cereal Sci. Technol., Vol. 2, (Y. Pomeranz, ed.), Amer. Assoc. Cereal Chemists, Vol. 2, p. 91-133.

28. Kramer, K. J., Speirs, R. D. and Childs, C. N. 1977. Immunochemical evidence for a gastrin-like peptide in insect neuroendocrine system. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 32, 423-426.

29. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1978. Activity of pyridyl and phenyl ether analogues of juvenile hormone against Coleoptera and Lepidoptera in stored grain. J. Econ. Entomol. 71, 132-134.

30. Regier, J. C., Kafatos, F. C., Kramer, K. J., Heinrikson, R. L. and Keim, P. S. 1978. Silkmoth chorion proteins: general characterization of a protein family, purification methods and amino terminal sequence of one component. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1305-1314.

31. Kramer, K. J., Speirs, R. D. and Childs, C. N. 1978. A method for separation of trehalose from insect hemolymph. Analyt. Biochem. 86, 692-696.

32. Speirs, R. D. and Kramer, K. J. 1978. Some morphological effects of diabetogenic agents in insects. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 51, 400.

33. Kramer, K. J., Hendricks, L. H., Liang, Y. T. and Seib, P. A. 1978. Effects of ascorbic acid and related compounds on the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 874-878.

34. Kramer, K. J., Jacobs, R. M., Speirs, R. D. and Hendricks, L. H. 1978. Effect of vertebrate hypoglycemic and ß-cell cytotoxic agents in insects. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61C, 95-97.

35. Kramer, K. J. 1979. Research in biochemistry and the action of insect growth regulators. In: Proc.: Preven. Control Insects Stored Food Prod. Symposium., (R. Strong, R. B. Mills, and L. A. Bulla, eds.), Kansas State University Press, p. 265-276.

36. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1978. Activity of TH-6041 and TH-6042 against stored product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 71, 825-826.

37. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1979. Reproductive inhibition of stored product insects by Mobil 9087. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 52, 331-333.

38. Kramer, K. J., Jones, B. L., Speirs, R. D., Klassen, L. W. and Kammer, A. E. 1979. Toxicity of purothionin and its homologs to the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 48, 61-65.

39. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1979. Activity of seven chitin synthesis inhibitors against development of stored product insects. Environ. Entomol. 8, 274-276.

40. Kramer, K. J. 1980. Insulin-like and glucagon-like hormones in insects. In: Neurohormonal Techniques in Insects, (T. A. Miller, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 116-136.

41. Kramer, K. J., Childs, C. N. and Speirs, R. D. 1979. Effect of neutral red on carbohydrate levels in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C, 229-230.

42. Kramer, K. J., McGregor, H. E. and Mori, K. 1979. Susceptibility of stored product insects to pyridyl ester analogues of juvenile hormone. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 1215-1217.

43. Bulla, L. A., Davidson, L. I., Kramer, K. J. and Jones, B. L. 1979. Purification of the insecticidal toxin from the parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 91, 1123-1130.

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1980s

44. Kramer, K. J. and McGregor, H. E. 1980. Susceptibility of stored-product insects to chitin inhibitors LY-131215 and LY-127063. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53, 627-630.

45. Bulla, L. A., Bechtel, D. B., Kramer, K. J., Shetlna, Y., Aronson, A. and Fitz-James, P. C. 1980. Sporulation and parasporal crystal formations in Bacillus thuringiensis. In: CRC Critical Rev. Microbiol., CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, p. 147-204.

46. Kramer, K. J., Tager, H. S., Childs, C. N. 1980. Insulin-like and glucagon-like peptides in insect haemolymph. Insect Biochem. 10, 179-182.

47. Roche, T. E., Kramer, K. J. and Dyer, D. 1980. Regulation of fat body pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. 10, 577-582.

48. Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L., Ahmed, R. F., Mueller, D. and Lookhart, G. 1980. Tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) and other Lepidoptera. Identification of ß-D-glucopyranosyl-O-L-tyrosine and other metabolites. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 205, 146-155.

49. Tager, H. S. and Kramer, K. J. 1980. Insect glucagon-like peptides: evidence for a high molecular weight form in midgut from Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 10, 617-619.

50. Ichikawa, Y., Komatsu, M., Takigawa, T., Mori, K. and Kramer, K. J. 1980. Synthesis of pyridyl terpenoid ether analogs of juvenile hormone. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44, 2709-2715.

51. Kramer, K. J., Speirs, R. D., Lookhart, G. L., Seib, P. A. and Liang, Y. T. 1981. Sequestration of ascorbic acid by the larval labial gland and haemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. 11, 93-96.

52. Jones, B. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1981. An aid to molecular sequence studies: use of ceramic magnets to visualize sequences of proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. J. Chem. Ed. 58, 72.

53. Turner, C. D., Koga, D. and Kramer, K. J. 1981. Secretion of exo- and endo ß-N-acetylglucosamidases by insect cell lines. Insect Biochem. 11, 215-219.

54. Bulla, L. A., Kramer, K. J., Cox, D. J., Jones, B. L., Davidson, L. I. and Lookhart, G. L. 1981. Purification and characterization of the entomocidal protoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3000-3004.

55. Tyrell, D., Bulla, L. A., Andrews, R., Kramer, K. J., Davidson, L. I. and Nordin, P. 1981. Comparative biochemistry of entomocidal parasporal crystals from selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 145, 1052-1062.

56. Mueller, D. D., Kramer, K. J. and Bolden, T. D. 1981. Phosphorus-31 NMR of insect hemolymph sera. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, 64-73.

57. Kramer, K. J. and Rupley, J. A. 1981. Interaction of thyroxine with lysozyme. Physiol. Chem. Physics 13, 313-318.

58. Turner, C. D., Koga, D., Mai, M. S. and Kramer, K. J. 1981. Purification and characterization of two ß-N-acetylhexosaminidases from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 212, 546-560.

59. Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W. and Hendricks, L. H. 1981. Activity of Ro13-5223 and Ro13-7744 against stored product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 74, 678-680.

60. Nakagawa, N., Kramer, K. J. and Mori, K. 1981. Synthesis and biological activity of some dibromoalkydienyl ether analogs of juvenile hormone. Agric. Biol. Chem. 45, 2381-2382.

61. Kramer, K. J., Childs, C. N., Speirs, R. D. and Jacobs, R. M. 1982. Purification of insulin-like peptides from insect haemolymph and royal jelly. Insect Biochem. 12, 91-98.

62. Takemoto, D. J., Dunford, C., Vaughn, D., Kramer, K. J., Smith, A. and Powell, R. G. 1982. Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes: enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts. Enzyme 27, 179-188.

63. Koga, D., Mai, M. S., Dziadik-Turner, C. and Kramer, K. J. 1982. Kinetics and mechanism of exochitinase and ß-N-acetylhexosaminidase from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Insect Biochem. 12, 493-499.

64. Fishback, J. L., Tallman, G., Reeck, G. R., and Kramer, K. J. 1982. Nonhistone chromatin proteins from an insect cell line: preferential affinity for single-strand DNA of a high molecular weight protein. Insect Biochem. 12, 251-256.

65. Kramer, K. J. and Hendricks, L. H. 1982. Activity of CGA-28772 against stored product insects. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 55, 302-304.

66. Lu, P., Kramer, K. J., Seib, P. A., Mueller, D. D., Ahmed, R. and Hopkins, T. L. 1982. ß-D-Glucopyranosyl-O-L-tyrosine: synthesis, properties and titre during insect development. Insect Biochem. 12, 377-381.

67. Kramer, K. J. and Seib, P. A. 1982. Ascorbic acid and the growth and development of insects. In: Ascorbic Acid: Chemistry, Metabolism and Uses, (P. A. Seib and B. M. Tolbert, eds.), Advances in Chemistry Series No. 200, p. 273-291. American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C.

68. Hopkins, T. L., Morgan, T. D., Aso, Y. and Kramer, K. J. 1982. N-ß-Alanyldopamine: a major role in insect cuticle tanning. Science 217, 364-366.

69. Koga, D., Mai, M. S. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Comparative biochemistry of insect exo ß-N-acetylglucosaminidases: characterization of a third enzyme from pupal hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74B, 515-520.

70. Koga, D., Jilka, J. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Insect endochitinases: glycoproteins from moulting fluid, integument and pupal haemolymph. Insect Biochem. 13, 295-305.

71. Mai, M. S. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Properties of esterases from pharate pupal molting fluid of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74B, 769-773.

72. Ahmed, R. F., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Tyrosine and tyrosine glucoside titres in whole animals and tissues during development of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 13, 369-374.

73. El-Salhy, M., Falkmer, S., Kramer, K. J. and Speirs, R. D. 1983. Immunohistochemical investigations of neurohormonal peptides in the brain, corpora cardiaca, and corpora allata of the adult lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta (L.). Cell Tissue Res. 232, 295-317.

74. Koga, D., Jilka, J., Speirs, R. D. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Immunological relationships between ß-N-acetylglucosaminidases from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 13, 407-410.

75. Ahmed, R. F., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Tyrosine glucoside hydrolase activity in tissues of Manduca sexta (L.): effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Insect Biochem. 13, 641-645.

76. Kramer, K. J., Nuntnarumit, C., Aso, Y., Hawley, M. D. and Hopkins, T. L. 1983. Electrochemical and enzymatic oxidation of catecholamines involved in sclerotization and melanization of insect cuticle. Insect Biochem. 13, 475-479.

77. Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L., Lookhart, G. L., Aso, Y. and Roseland, C. R. 1983. The biochemical basis for the black mutation in Tribolium castaneum. Tribolium Info. Bull. 23, 86-88.

78. Koga, D. and Kramer, K. J. 1983. Hydrolysis of glycol chitin by chitinolytic enzymes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 76B, 291-293.

79. Roseland, C. R., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Hopkins, T. L. 1983. Microinjection of amino acids into Tribolium. Tribolium Info. Bull. 23,132.

80. Lu, P. W., Lillard, D. W., Seib, P. A., Kramer, K. J. and Liang, Y. T. 1984. Synthesis of the 2-methyl ether of L-ascorbic acid: stability, vitamin activity and 13C-NMR spectrum compared to the 1- and 3-methyl ethers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 21-28.

81. Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L., Roseland, C. R., Aso, Y., Beeman, R. W. and Lookhart, G. L. 1984. Catecholamines and ß-alanine in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Roles in cuticle sclerotization and melanization. Insect Biochem. 14, 293-298.

82. El-Salhy, M., Falkmer, S., Kramer, K. J. and Speirs, R. D. 1984. Immunocytochemical evidence for the occurrence of insulin in the frontal ganglion of the lepidopteran insect, the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta (L.). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 54, 85-88.

83. Aso, Y., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Whetzel, S. Z. 1984. Properties of tyrosinase and DOPA quinone imine conversion factor from pharate pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 14, 463-472.

84. Hopkins, T. L., Morgan, T. D. and Kramer, K. J. 1984. Catecholamines in haemolymph and cuticle during larval, pupal and adult development of Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 14, 533-544.

85. Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Roseland, C. R., Hopkins, T. L. and Beeman, R. W. 1984. Regulation of cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization in red and black strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. In: Proc. Third Internat. Working Conf. Stored-Prod. Entomol. Kansas State Univ. Press, Manhattan, KS, p. 138-150.

86. Kramer, K. J. 1984. Progress in Pesticide Biochemistry, Vol. 2. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 106, 7655-7656.

87. Kramer, K. J. 1984. Progress in Pesticide Biochemistry and Toxicology, Vol. 3. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 106, 7656.

88. Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Speirs, W. E., Burkholder, W. E. and McGovern, T. P. 1985. Effects of 2-tridecanone and analogues on the reproduction and mortality of stored product insects. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 58, 254-260.

89. Aso, Y., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Lookhart, G. L. 1985. Characterization of haemolymph protyrosinase and a cuticular activator from Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 15, 9-17.

90. Fukamizo, T. and Kramer, K. J. 1985. Mechanism of chitin oligosaccharide hydrolysis by the binary enzyme chitinase system in insect moulting fluid. Insect Biochem. 15, 1-7.

91. Fukamizo, T. and Kramer, K. J. 1985. Mechanism of chitin hydrolysis by the binary chitinase system in insect moulting fluid. Insect Biochem. 15, 141-145.

92. Roseland, C. R., Grodowitz, M. J., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Broce, A. B. 1985. Stabilization of mineralized and sclerotized puparial cuticle of muscid flies. Insect Biochem. 15, 521-528.

93. Ahmed, R. F., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1985. Role of juvenile hormone in regulating tyrosine glucoside synthesis for pupal tanning in Manduca sexta (L.). J. Insect Physiol. 31, 341-345.

94. Fukamizo, T., Speirs, R. D. and Kramer, K. J. 1985. Comparative biochemistry of mycophagous and nonmycophagous grain beetles. Chitinolytic activities of foreign and sawtoothed grain beetles. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 81B, 207-209.

95. Kramer, K. J., Hendricks, L. H., Wojciak, J. H. and Fyler, J. 1985. Evaluation of fenoxycarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and malathion as grain protectants in small bins. J. Econ. Entomol. 78, 632-636.

96. Kramer, K. J. 1985. Vertebrate hormones in insects. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 7., Endocrinology I. (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 511-536.

97. Kramer, K. J., Dziadik-Turner, C. and Koga, D. 1985. Chitin metabolism in insects. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 3. Integument, Respiration and Circulation. (G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 75-115.

98. Kramer, K. J. and Koga, D. 1986. Insect chitin: physical state, synthesis, degradation and metabolic regulation. Insect Biochem. 16, 851-877.

99. Fukamizo, T., Kramer, K. J., Mueller, D. D., Schaefer, J., Garbow, J. and Jacob, G. 1986. Analysis of chitin structure by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chitinolytic enzyme digestion. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 249, 15-26.

100. Roseland, C. R., Kramer, K. J. and Hopkins, T. L. 1987. Cuticular strength and pigmentation of rust-red and black strains of Tribolium castaneum: correlation with catecholamine and ß-alanine content. Insect Biochem. 17, 21-28.

101. Kramer, K. J. 1987. Neurochemical Techniques in Insect Research. J. Electrophysiol. Tech. 13, 317-318.

102. Grodowitz, J. J., Broce, A. B. and Kramer, K. J. 1987. Morphology and biochemical composition of mineralized granules from the Malpighian tubules of Musca autumnalis De Geer larvae (Diptera: Muscidae). Insect Biochem. 17, 335-345.

103. Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L., Kramer, K. J., Roseland, C. R., Czapla, H. T., Tomer, K. B. and Crow, F. W. 1987. N-ß-Alanylnorepinephrine: biosynthesis in insect cuticle and possible role in sclerotization. Insect Biochem. 17, 255-263.

104. Ujvary, I., Hiruma, K., Riddiford, L. M., Matolcsy, G., Roseland, C. R. and Kramer, K. J. 1987. Role of ß-alanine on pupal coloration in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: effects of ß-alanine derivatives on melanization and catecholamine levels. Insect Biochem. 17, 389-399.

105. Kramer, K. J. and Aoki, H. 1987. Chitinolytic enzymes from pupae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 86B, 613-621.

106. Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L., Schaefer, J. , Morgan, T. D., Garbow, J. R., Jacob, G. S., Stejskal, E. O. and Speirs, R. D. 1987. Mechanisms of insect cuticle stabilization. How do tobacco hornworms do it? In: Molecular Entomology, UCLA Symp. Molec. Cell. Biol., New Series. Vol. 49 (J. H. Law, ed.). Alan R. Liss, Inc. New York, p. 331-355.

107. Fukamizo, T. and Kramer, K. J. 1987. Effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone on chitinase and ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase during the larval-pupal transformation in Manduca sexta (L.). Insect Biochem. 17, 547-550.

108. Schaefer, J., Kramer, K. J., Garbow, J. R., Jacob, G. S., Stejskal, E. O., Hopkins, T. L. and Speirs, R. D. 1987. Aromatic cross-links in insect cuticle: detection by solid-state 13C and 15N NMR. Science 235, 1200-1204.

109. Hung, T., Seib, P. A. and Kramer, K. J. 1987. Determination of L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate in breadmaking using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J. Food Sci. 52, 948-953, 974.

110. Grodowitz, M. J., Roseland, C. R., Hu, K. K., Broce, A. B. and Kramer, K. J. 1987. Mechanical properties of mineralized and sclerotized puparial cuticles of the flies, Musca autumnalis and M. domestica. J. Exp. Zool. 243, 201-210.

111. Kramer, K. J. and Hopkins, T. L. 1987. Tyrosine metabolism for insect cuticle tanning. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 6, 279-301.

112. Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L., Kramer, K. J. and Morgan, T. D. 1988. Diphenols in hemolymph and cuticle during development and cuticle tanning of Periplaneta americana (L.) and other cockroach species. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 7, 13-28.

113. Krueger, R. A., Broce, A. B., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1988. Calcium transport from malpighian tubules to puparial cuticle of Musca autumnalis. J. Comp. Physiol. B158, 413-419.

114. Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Schaefer, J. 1988. Insect cuticle structure and metabolism. Adv. Chem. 379, 160-185.

115. Kramer, K. J., Bork, V., Schaefer, J., Morgan, T. D. and Hopkins, T. L. 1989. Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and chemical analyses of insect noncuticular sclerotized support structures: mantid oothecae and cocoon silks. Insect Biochem. 19, 69-77.

116. Krueger, R. A., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Speirs, R. D. 1989. N-ß-Alanyldopamine levels and synthesis in integument and other tissues of Manduca sexta L. during the larval-pupal transformation. Insect Biochem. 19, 169-175.

117. Thomas, B. R., Yonekura, M., Morgan, T. D., Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1989. A trypsin-solubilized laccase from pharate integument of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. 19, 611-622.

118. Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1989. Catecholamines and related o-diphenols in the hemolymph and cuticle of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, during sclerotization and pigmentation. Insect Biochem. 19, 509-515.

119. Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L., Christensen, A. M. and Schaefer, J. 1989. Solid-state 13C-NMR and diphenol analyses of sclerotized cuticles from stored product Coleoptera. Insect Biochem. 19, 753-757.

120. Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1989. Catecholamines in the cuticles of four strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), during sclerotization and melanization. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 12, 145-156.

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1990s

121. Johnson, D. E., Brookhart, G. L., Kramer, K. J., Barnett, B. D. and McGaughey, W. H. 1990. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis by the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella:: comparison of midgut proteinases from susceptible and resistant larvae. J. Invert. Path. 55, 235-244.

122. Morgan, T. D., Thomas, B. R., Yonekura, M., Czapla, T. H., Kramer, K. J. and Hopkins, T. L. 1990. Soluble tyrosinases from pharate pupal integument of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.) Insect Biochem. 20, 251-260.

123. Brookhart, G. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1990. Proteinases in molting fluid of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. 20, 467-477.

124. Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1990. Catecholamines and related o-diphenols in cockroach hemolymph and cuticle during sclerotization and melanization: comparative studies on the order Dictyoptera. J. Comp. Physiol. B160, 175-181.

125. Czapla, T. H., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1990. Cuticular strength and pigmentation of five strains of adult Blattella germanica (L.) during sclerotization: correlations with catecholamines, ß-alanine, and food deprivation. J. Insect Physiol. 36, 647-654.

126. Krueger, R. A., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Speirs, R. D. 1990. N-ß-Alanyldopamine and N-acetyldopamine occurrence and synthesis in the central nervous system of Manduca sexta (L.) Insect Biochem. 20, 605-610.

127. Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L., Christensen, A., and Schaefer, J. 1991. Insect cuticle tanning: enzymes and cross-link structure. In: Naturally Occurring Pest Bioregulators (Hedin, P., ed.), Amer. Chem. Soc. Adv. Chem. Series, Vol. 449, p. 87-105.

128. Liang, C., Brookhart, G., Feng, G. H., Reeck, G. R. and Kramer, K. J. 1991. Inhibition of digestive proteinases of stored grain Coleoptera by oryzacystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from rice seed. FEBS Letters 278, 139-142.

129. Feng, G. H., Chen, M. S., Kramer, K. J. and Reeck, G. R. 1991. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic separation of wheat proteinaceous inhibitors of insect and mammalian a-amylases. Cereal Chem. 68, 95-99.

130. Kramer, K. J., Christensen, A. M., Morgan, T. D., Schaefer, J., Czapla, T. H. and Hopkins, T. L. 1991. Analysis of cockroach oothecae and exuviae by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Insect Biochem. 21, 149-156.

131. Czapla, T. H., Claeys, M. R., Morgan, T. D., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Hawley, M. D. 1991. Oxidative decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid to 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde: electrochemical and HPLC analyses of the reaction mechanism. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1077, 400-406.

132. Corpuz, L. M., Choi, H., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 1991. Sequence of the cDNAs and expression of the genes encoding methionine-rich storage proteins of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. 21, 265-276.

133. Feng, G. H., Chen, M. S., Kramer, K. J. and Reeck, G. R. 1991. a-Amylase inhibitors from rice: fractionation and selectivity towards insect,mammalian, and bacterial a-amylases. Cereal Chem. 68, 516-521.

134. Christensen, A. M., Schaefer, J., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D. and Hopkins, T. L. 1991. Detection of cross-links in insect cuticle by REDOR NMR. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 113, 6799-6802.

135. Christensen, A. M., Schaefer, J. and Kramer, K. J. 1991. Comparison of REDOR and double-cross polarization NMR for detection of weak heteronuclear dipolar coupling in solids. Magnetic Resonance Chem. 29, 418-421.

136. Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. Catecholamine metabolism and the integument. 1991. In: Physiology of Insect Epidermis (K. Binnington and A. Retnakaran, eds.). CSIRO Publications. Victoria, Australia, p. 213-239.

137. Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1992. Insect cuticle sclerotization. Annual Rev. Entomol. 37, 273-302.

138. Holl, S. M., Schaefer, J., Goldberg, W. M., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D. and Hopkins, T. L. 1992. Comparison of black coral skeleton and insect cuticle by a combination of carbon-13 NMR and chemical analyses. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 292, 107-111.

139. Chen, M. S., Feng, G., Zen, K. C., Richardson, M., Valdes-Rodrigues, S., Reeck, G. R. and Kramer, K. J. 1992. a-Amylases from three species of stored grain Coleoptera and their inhibition by wheat and corn proteinaceous inhibitors. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 22, 261-268.

140. Chen, M. S., Johnson, B., Wen, L., Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D. and Reeck, G. R. 1992. Rice cystatin: bacterial expression, purification, cysteine proteinase inhibiting activity and insect growth suppressing activity of a truncated form of the protein. Protein Express. Purification 3, 41-49.

141. Swegle, M., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1992. Properties of barley seed chitinases and release of embryo-associated isoforms during early stages of imbibition. Plant Physiol. 99, 1009-1014.

142. Koga, D., Funakoshi, T., Mizuki, K., Ide, A., Kramer, K. J., Zen, K. C., Choi, H. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1992. Immunoblot analysis of chitinolytic enzymes in integuments and molting fluids of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta . Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 22, 305-311.

143. Chen, M. S., Johnson, B., Wen, L., Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., and Reeck, G. R. 1992. Truncated form of rice cystatin suppresses insect growth. Rice Biotech. Quart. 12, 8-9.

144. Mueller, D. D., Morgan, T. D., Wassenberg, J. D., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1993. 1H and 13C-NMR of 3-O- and 4-O-conjugates of dopamine and other catecholamines. Bioconjugate Chem. 4, 47-53.

145. Morgan, T. D., Oppert, B., Czapla, T. H. and Kramer, K. J. 1993. Avidin and streptavidin as insecticidal and growth inhibiting dietary proteins. Entomol. Exper. Appli. 69, 97-108.

146. Kramer, K. J., Corpuz, L., Choi, H. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1993. Sequence of a cDNA and expression of the genes encoding epidermal and gut chitinases of Manduca sexta . Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 23, 691-701.

147. Shao, Y., Seib, P. A., Kramer, K. J. and Van Galen, D. A. 1993. Synthesis and properties of D erythroascorbic acid and its vitamin C activity in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41, 1391-1396.

148. Oppert, B., Morgan, T. D., Culbertson, C. and Kramer, K. J. 1993. Dietary mixtures of cysteine and serine proteinase inhibitors exhibit synergistic toxicity toward the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 105C, 379-385.

149. Goldberg, W. M., Hopkins, T. L., Holl, S. M., Schaefer, J., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D. and Kim, K. 1994. Chemical composition of sclerotized black coral skeletons (Coelenterata: Antipatharia): a comparison of two species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 107B, 633-643.

150. Okot-Kotber, M., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1994. Characterization of two high molecular weight catechol-containing glycoproteins from pharate pupal cuticle of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 24, 787-802.

151. Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., Johnson, D. E., MacIntosh, S. C. and McGaughey, W. H. 1994. Altered protoxin activation by midgut enzymes from a Bacillus thuringiensis resistant strain of Plodia interpunctella. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 198, 940-947.

152. Hopkins, T. L., Morgan, T. D., Mueller, D. E., Tomer, K. B. and Kramer, K. J. 1995. Identification of catecholamine ß-glucosides in the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.), during development. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 25, 29-37.

153. Gopalakrishnan, B., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 1995. Baculovirus-mediated expression of a Manduca sexta chitinase gene: properties of the recombinant protein. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 25, 255-265.

154. Wappner, P., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L., Merritt, M., Schaefer, J. and Quesada-Allue, L. A. 1995. White pupa: a Ceratitis capitata mutant lacking catecholamines for tanning the puparium. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 25, 365-373.

155. Pueyo, J. J., Morgan, T. D., Ameenuddin, N., Liang, C., Reeck, G. R., Chrispeels, M. J. and Kramer, K. J. 1995. Effects of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) a-amylase inhibitors on a-amylase activity and growth of stored product insects. Entomol. exper. appl. 75, 237-244.

156. Kramer, K. J. 1995. Protein resources for insect pest management. Proc. XXVIII U. S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Protein Panel (A. Pavlath, ed.), p. Z1-15.

157. Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Schaefer, J. 1995. Applications of solids NMR to the analysis of insect sclerotized structures. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 25, 1067-1080.

158. Xu, R., Huang, X., Kramer, K. J. and Hawley, M. D. 1995. On-column reduction of catecholamine quinones in stainless steel columns during liquid chromatography. Analyt. Biochem. 231, 72-81.

159. Kramer, K. J. 1995. Applications of biotechnology to insect pest management. Proc. XXIV U. S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Protein Panel (A. Pavlath, ed.), p. 56-61.

160. Chung, O.K., Lookhart, G. L., Steele, J. L., Seitz, L. M., Zayas, I. Y., Martin, C. R., Smail, V. W., Bechtel, D. B., Ohm, J. M., Chang, C. S., Wilson, J. D., Bean, S. R., Seabourn, B. W., Park, H. S., Dowdy, A. K., Hagstrum, D. W., Kramer, K. J., McGaughey, W. H., Akkina, S. K. and Converse, H. H. 1995. Wheat research in the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory. Annual Wheat Newsletter. 41, 246-259.

161. Ahmad, S. A., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Tyrosine glucosyltransferase in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (L.): properties, tissue localization and developmental profile. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 49-57.

162. Xu, R., Huang, X., Kramer, K. J. and Hawley, M. D. 1996. Characterization of products from the reactions of dopamine quinone with N-acetylcysteine. Bioorganic Chem. 24, 110-126.

163. Wappner, P., Hopkins, T. L., Kramer, K. J., Cladera, J. L., Manso, F. and Quesada-Allué, L. A. 1996. Role of catecholamines and ß-alanine in puparial color of wild-type and melanic mutants of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). J. Insect Physiol. 42, 455-461.

164. Okot-Kotber, B. M., Morgan, T. D., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Catecholamine containing proteins from the pharate pupal cuticle of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 475-484.

165. Zen, K. C., Choi, H. K., Nandegama, K., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Cloning, expression and hormonal regulation of an insect ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 435-444.

166. Ujvary, I., Matolsy, G., Belai, I., Szurdolsi, F., Bauer, K., Varjas, L. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Projuvenoids: synthesis and biological evaluation of sulfenylated, sulfinylated, and sulfonylated carbamates. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 32, 659-669.

167. Feng, G. H., Richardson, M. Chen, M. S., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D. and Reeck, G. R. 1996. a-Amylase inhibitors from wheat: amino acid sequences and patterns of inhibition of insect ?-amylases. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 419-426.

168. Baker, J. E. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Biotechnological approaches for stored-product insect pest control. Postharvest News and Information 7, 11N-18N.

169. Wappner, P., Kramer, K. J. , Manso, F., Hopkins, T. L. and Quesada-Allué, L. A. 1996. N-ß-Alanyldopamine metabolism for puparial tanning in wild-type and mutant niger strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 585-592.

170. Xu, R., Huang, X., Morgan, T. D., Prakash, O., Kramer, K. J. and Hawley, M. D. 1996. Characterization of products from the reactions of N-acetyldopamine quinone with N-acetylhistidine. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 329, 56-64.

171. Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., Johnson, D., Upton, S. J. and McGaughey, W. H. 1996. Luminal proteinases from Plodia interpunctella and the hydrolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(c) protoxin. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 571-583.

172. Wang, X., Ding, X., Gopalakrishnan, B., Morgan, T. D., Johnson, L., White, F., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 1996. Characterization of a 46 kDa insect chitinase from transgenic tobacco. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 26, 1055-1064.

173. Merritt, M. E., Christensen, A. M., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Schaefer, J. 1996. Detection of inter-catechol-protein cross-links in insect cuticle by solid state carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 NMR. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 118, 11278-11282.

174. Kramer, K. J. 1996. ARS biotechnology research in plant resistance to stored product insect pests. Proc. First Joint Meeting U. S.-Japan Natural Resources Protein and Toxic Microorganisms Panels (A. Pavlath, ed.), FF1-FF13.

175. Choi, H. K., Choi, K. H., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1997. Isolation and characterization of a genomic clone for the gene of an insect molting enzyme, chitinase. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 27, 37-47.

176. Xu, R., Huang, X., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1997. Catecholamine and histidyl protein cross-linked structures in sclerotized insect cuticle. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 27, 101-108.

177. Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J. and McGaughey, W. H. 1997. Insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. The Chemist 74, 7-10.

178. Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S., Johnson, L. and White, F. 1997. Chitinases for insect control. In Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants. (N. Carozzi and M. Koziel, eds.), Taylor and Francis Publ., Bristol, PA. p. 185-193.

179. Reeck, G. R., Kramer, K., Baker, J., Kanost, M., Fabrick, J. and Behnke, C. 1997. Proteinase inhibitors and resistance of transgenic plants to insects. In Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants. (N. Carozzi and M. Koziel, eds.), Taylor and Francis Publ., Bristol, PA. p. 157-183.

180. Oppert, B, Kramer, K. J. and McGaughey, W. H. 1997. Rapid microplate assay for substrates and inhibitors of proteinase mixtures. BioTechniques 23, 70-72.

181. Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., Johnson, D., Beeman, R. W. and McGaughey, W. H. 1997. Proteinase mediated insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 23473-23476.

182. Huang, X., Xu, R., Hawley, M. D. and Kramer, K. J. 1997. Model insect cuticle sclerotization: reactions of catecholamine quinones with the nitrogen-centered nucleophiles imidazole and N-acetylhistidine. Bioorg. Chem. 25, 179-202.

183. Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1997. Insect chitinases: molecular biology and potential use as biopesticides. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 27, 887-900.

184. Zhu, Y., Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., McGaughey, W. H. and Dowdy, A. K. 1997. cDNAs for a chymotrypsinogen-like protein from two strains of Plodia interpunctella. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 27, 1027-1037.

185. Ding, X., Gopalakrishnan, B., Johnson, L. B., White, F. F., Wang, X., Morgan, T. D., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 1998. Insect resistance of transgenic tobacco expressing an insect chitinase gene. Transgenic Res. 7, 77-84.

186. Huang, X., Xu, R., Hawley, M. D., Hopkins, T. L. and Kramer, K. J. 1998. Electrochemical oxidation of N-acyldopamines and regioselective reactions of their quinones with N-acetylcysteine and thiourea. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 352, 19-30.

187. Turecek, F., Kerwin, J., Xu., R. and Kramer, K. 1998. Distinction of N-substituted histidines by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom. 33, 392-396.

188. Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L. and Schaefer, J. 1998. Analysis of intractable biological samples by solids NMR. In Nitrogen-Containing Macromolecules in the Bio- and Geosphere. (B. A. Stankiewicz and P. F. van Bergen, eds.) ACS Symp. Ser. Vol. 707, p. 14-33.

189. Oppert, B. and Kramer, K. J. 1998. Economical use of substrates in enzyme activity blots. Amer. Biotech. Lab. 16, 20.

190. Unruh, L. M., Xu, R. and Kramer, K. J. 1998. Benzoquinone levels as a function of age and gender of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 28, 969-977.

191. Kerwin, J. L., Turecek, F., Xu, R., Kramer, K. J., Hopkins, T. L., Gatlin, C. L. and Yates, J. R. 1999. Mass spectrometric analysis of catechol-histidine adducts from insect cuticle. Analyt. Biochem. 268, 229-237.

192. Hopkins, T. L., Starkey, S. R., Xu, R., Merritt, M. E., Schaefer, J. and Kramer, K. J. 1999. Catechols involved in sclerotization of cuticle and egg pods of the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes, and their interactions with cuticular proteins. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 40, 119-128.

193. Kramer, K. J. 1999. Development of transgenic biopesticides for stored product insect pest control. In: Proc. XXVIIth Meeting US-Japan Coop. Program in Natural Resources (Pavlath, A. E. and Cherry, J. P., eds.), p. Z1-Z9.

194. Reeck, G., Oppert, B., Denton, M., Kanost, M., Baker, J. and Kramer, K. 1999. Insect proteinases. In: Proteases: New Perspectives (Turk, V., ed.), Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, p. 125-148.

195. Kramer, K. J. 1999. Transgenic plants expressing avidin or chitinase are resistant to insect pests. Proc. XXVIIIth Annual Meeting U.S.-Japan Coop. Prog. Nat. Resources Protein Resources Panel. p. 64-69.

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2000s

196. Hopkins, T. L., Krchma, J., Ahmad, S., and Kramer, K. J. 2000. Pupal cuticle proteins of Manduca sexta: characterization and profiles during sclerotization. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 30, 19-27.

197. Huang, X., Zhang, H., Zen, K. C., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2000. Homology modeling of the insect chitinase catalytic domain-oligosaccharide complex and the role of a putative active site tryptophan in catalysis. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 30, 107-117.

198. Zhu, Y. C., Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., McGaughey, W. H. and Dowdy, A. K. 2000. cDNAs of aminopeptidase-like protein genes from Plodia interpunctella strains with different susceptibilities to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 30, 215-224.

199. Zhu, Y., Oppert, B., Kramer, K. J., McGaughey, W. H. and Dowdy, A. K. 2000. cDNAs sequence, mRNA expression and genomic DNA of trypsinogen from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Insect Molec. Biol. 9, 19-26.

200. Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Throne, J. E., Dowell, F. E., Bailey, M. and Howard, J. A. 2000. Transgenic maize expressing avidin is resistant to storage insect pests. Nature Biotech. 18, 670-674.

201. Throne, J. E., Baker, J. E., Messina, F. J., Kramer, K. J. and Howard, J. A. 2000. Varietal resistance. In: Bh. Subramanyam and D.W. Hagstrum [eds.], Alternatives to Pesticides in Stored-Product IPM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA., p. 165-192.

202. Zhu, Y. C., Kramer, K. J., Dowdy, A. K. and Baker, J. E. 2000. Trypsinogen-like cDNAs and quantitative analysis of mRNA levels from the Indianmeal, Plodia interpunctella. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 30, 1027-1035.

203. Oppert, B., Hammel, R., Throne, J. E. and Kramer, K. J. 2000. Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Entomol. Exper. Appli. 96, 281-287.

204. Kramer, K. J. 2000. What do you get when a chicken gene is put into maize? If the gene is for the egg white protein, avidin, you get an insect-resistant transgenic grain. ISB News Report, August., p. 2-4.

205. Kramer, K. J. 2001. Putting a chicken gene into corn results in an insect-resistant transgenic grain. Proc. XXIXth Annual Meeting U.S.-Japan Coop. Prog. Nat. Resources Protein Panel. (Pavlath, A. E. and Cherry, J. P., eds.), p. FF1-FF4.

206. Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Zhang, H., Lu, Y. and Matsumiya, M. 2001. Use of chitinases as biopesticides. In: Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science (eds., T. Uragami, K. Kurita & T. Fukamizo), Kodansha Scientific Ltd., p. 415-418.

207. Zhu, X., Zhang, H., Fukamizo, T., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2001. Properties of Manduca sexta chitinase and its C-terminal deletions. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 31, 1221-1230.

208. Kramer, K. J., Kanost, M. R., Hopkins, T. L., Jiang, H., Zhu, Y. C., Xu, R., Kerwin, J. L., and Turecek, F. (2001) Oxidative conjugation of catechols with proteins in insect skeletal systems. Tetrahedon 57, 385-392.

209. Fabrick, J., Behnke, C., Czapla, T., Bala, K., Rao, A. G., Kramer, K. J. and Reeck, G. R. 2002. Effects of a potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor on midgut proteolytic enzyme activity and growth of the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 32, 405-415.

210. Zhu, Y. C., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2002. cDNA sequences and mRNA levels of two hexamerin storage proteins PinSP1 and PinSP2 from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 32, 525-536.

211. Morgan, T. D., Baker, P., Kramer, K. J., Basibuyuk, H. H. and Quicke, D. L. J. 2003. Metals in mandibles of stored product insects: do zinc and manganese enhance the ability of larvae to infest seeds? J. Stored Prod. Res. 39, 65-75.

212. Lu, Y., Zen, K. C., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2002. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis of active site acidic amino acid residues D142, D144 and E146 in Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) chitinase. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 32, 1369-1382.

213. Zhu, Y. C., Specht, C. A., Muthukrishnan, S., Dittmer, N., Kanost, M. R. and Kramer, K. J. 2002. Sequence of a cDNA and expression of the gene encoding a putative epidermal chitin synthase of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 32, 1497-1506. Erratum in vol. 33, 277 (2003).

214. Oppert, B., Morgan, T. D., Hartzer, K., Lenarcic, B., Brzin, J., Turk, V., Yoza, K., Ohtsubo, K. and Kramer, K. J. 2003. Effects of proteinase inhibitors on growth and digestive proteolysis of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Compar. Biochem. Physiol. C134, 481-490.

215. Zhang, H., Huang, X., Fukamizo, T., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis of an active site tryptophan of insect chitinase. 2003. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 32, 1477-1488.

216. Suderman, R. J., Andersen, S. O., Hopkins, T. L., Kanost, M. R. and Kramer, K. J. 2003. Characterization and cDNA cloning of three major proteins from pharate pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 33, 331-343.

217. Masarik, M., Kizek, R., Kramer, K. J., Billova, S., Brazdova, M., Vacek, J., Bailey, M., Jelen, F. and Howard, J. A. 2003. Application of avidin-biotin technology and adsorptive transfer stripping square-wave voltammetry for detection of DNA hybridization and avidin in transgenic avidin maize. Analyt. Chem. 75, 2663-2669.

218. Arakane, Y., Zhu, Q., Matsumiya, M., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2003. Properties of catalytic, linker and insoluble substrate-binding domains of insect chitinase. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 33, 631-648.

219. Yoza, K., Imamura, T., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Yaguchi, M., Nakamura, S., Kawasaki, S., Takaiwa, F. and Ohtsubo, K. 2003. Avidin expressed in transgenic rice confers resistance to the stored-rice insect pest, Tribolium confusum. Proceedings of the 32nd U. S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Food and Agriculture Panel, Tsukuba, Japan, p. 207-211.

220. Dittmer, N. T., Suderman, R. J., Jiang, H., Zhu, Y. C., Gorman, M. J., Kramer, K. J. and Kanost, M. R. 2004. Characterization of cDNAs encoding putative laccase-like multicopper oxidases and developmental expression in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 34, 29-41.

221. Arakane, Y., Hogenkamp, D., Zhu, Y. C., Kramer, K. J., Specht, C. A., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R. and Muthukrishnan. S. 2004. Characterization of two chitin synthase genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and alternate exon usage in one of the genes during development. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 34, 291-304.

222. Zhu, Q., Deng, D., Vanka, P., Brown, S. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Kramer, K. J. 2004. Computational identification of novel chitinase-like proteins in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Bioinformatics 20, 161-169.

223. Kramer, K. J. 2004. Avidin, an egg-citing insecticidal protein in transgenic corn. In: G. H. Liang and D. Z. Skinner, eds., Genetic Transformation in Crop Plants, Haworth Press, New York. Chapter 5, p. 119-130.

224. Arakane, Y., Zhu, Q., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R. W. and Kramer, K. J. 2004. Molecular biology and functions of insect chitin synthase and chitinase genes. In Proceedings of International Symposium on New Frontier of Arthropod and Peptide Science (Miyazawa, M. and Ishibashi, J., eds.), Tsukuba City, Japan, pp. 37-42.

225. Oppert, B., Morgan, T. D. and Kramer, K. J. 2004. Inhibitor strategies to control coleopteran pests. International Congress Series, Animals and Environments. Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, (Morris, S. and Vosloo, A., eds.), Vol. 1275, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 149-156.

226. Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2005. Chitin metabolism in insects. In: L. I. Gilbert, K. Iatrou and S. Gill, eds., Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science. Vol. 4, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chapter 3. Elsevier Press, Oxford, UK, p. 111-144.

227. Oppert, B., Morgan, T. D., Hartzer, K. and Kramer, K. J. 2005. Compensatory proteolytic responses to dietary proteinase inhibitors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Comparative Biochem. Physiol. C140, 53-58.

228. Zimoch, L., Hogenkamp, D., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Merzendorfer H. 2005. Regulation of chitin synthesis in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35, 515-527.

229. Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Specht, C. A., Tomoyasu, Y., Lorenzen, M. D., Kanost, M. R. and Beeman, R. W. 2005. The Tribolium chitin synthase genes TcCHS1 and TcCHS2 are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix, respectively. Insect Molec. Biol. 14, 453-463.

230. Hogenkamp, D. G, Arakane, Y., Zimoch, L., Merzendorfer, H., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R, Specht, C. A., Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan. 2005. Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35, 529-540.

231. Kizek, R., Masarik, M., Kramer, K. J., Potesil, D., Bailey, M., Howard, J. A., Klejdus, B., Mikelova, R., Adam, V., Trnkova, L. and Jelen, F. 2005. An analysis of avidin, biotin and their interaction at attomole levels by voltammetric and chromatographic techniques. Analyt. Bioanalyt. Chem. 381, 1167-1178.

232. Petrek, J., Vitecek, J., Vlasinova, H., Kizek, R., Kramer, K. J., Adam, V., Klejdus, B. and Havel, L. 2005. Application of computer imaging, stripping voltammetry and mass spectrometry to study the effect of lead (Pb-EDTA) on the growth and viability of early somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./Karst.). Analyt. Bioanalyt. Chem. 383, 576-586.

233. Yoza, K., Imamura, T., Kramer, K. J., Morgan, T. D., Nakamura, S., Akiyama, K., Kawasaki, S., Takaiwa, F. and Ohtsubo, K. 2005. Avidin expressed in transgenic rice confers resistance to the stored-product insect pests, Tribolium confusum and Sitotroga cerealella. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 69, 966-971.

234. Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R. W., T., Kanost, M. R. and Kramer, K. J. 2005. Laccase 2 is the phenoloxidase gene required for beetle cuticle tanning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102, 11337-11342.

235. Bolognesi, R., Arakane, Y, Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Terra, W. R. and Ferreira, C. 2005. Sequences of cDNAs and expression of genes encoding chitin synthase and chitinase in the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 35, 1249-1259.

236. Eichler, C., Lomakin, J., Arakane, Y., Kanost, M. R., Kramer, K. J., and Gehrke, S. H. 2005. “Insect Cuticle as a Motif for Biomimetic Materials” in Advances in Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology (Bionanotechnology), A. Peppas, J. Z. Hilt, eds., AIChE, New York, NY, pp. 44-48.

237. Suderman, R.J., N.T. Dittmer, M.R. Kanost, and K.J. Kramer. 2006. Model reactions for insect cuticle sclerotization: Cross-linking of recombinant cuticular proteins upon their laccase-catalyzed oxidative conjugation with catechols. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 36, 353-365 [Erratum: Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 36, 610-611 (2006)].

238. Matsumiya, M., Y. Arakane, Haga, S., Muthukrishnan, and K.J. Kramer. 2006. Substrate specificity of chitinases from two species of fish, greenling, Hexagrammos otakii, and common mackerel, Scomber japonicus, and the insect, tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70, 971-979.

239. Flinn, P., Kramer, K. J., Throne, J. and Morgan, T. D. 2006. Protection of stored corn from insect pests using a two-component biological control method consisting of a hymenopteran parasitoid, Theocolax elegans, and transgenic avidin corn powder. J. Stored Product Research 42, 218-225.

240. Eichler, C., J. Lomakin, Y. Arakane, K.J. Kramer, M.R. Kanost, and S.H. Gehrke. 2006. Insect cuticle as a biomimetic material. In: Proceedings AlChE Annual Meeting, October 30-November 4, 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, N.Y., pp 4309-4313.

241. Vitacek, J., Petrlova, J., Adam, V., Havel, L., Kramer, K. J., Babula, P. and Kizek, R. 2007. A fluorometric sensor for detection of one living cell. Sensors 7, 222-238.

242. Vitacek, J., Petrlova, J., Petrek, J., Adam, V., Havel, L., Kramer, K. J. and Kizek, R. 2007. Application of fluorometric analysis of plant esterases to study of programmed cell death and effects of cadmium (II) ions. Biologia Plantarum 51, 551-555.

243. Miyaji, T., Kouzuma, Y., Yaguchi, J., Matsumoto, R., Kanost, M. R., Kramer, K. J. and Yonekura, M. 2007. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 37, 960-968.

244. Moreira, M. F., dos Santos, A. S., Marotta, H. R., Mansur, J. F., Ramos, I. B., Machado, E. A., Souza, G. H. M. P., Eberlin, M. N., Kaiser, C. R., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Vasconcellos, A. M. H. 2007. A chitin-like component in Aedes aegypti eggshells, eggs and ovaries. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 37, 1249-1261.

245. Petrlová, J., Krizkova, S., Šupálková, V., Masarik, M., Adam, V., Havel, L., Kramer, K. J. and Kizek, R. 2007. The determination of avidin in genetically modified maize by voltammetric techniques. Plant Soil Environ. 53, 345–349.

246. Muthukrishnan, S., Arakane, Y., Hogenkamp, D., Specht, C. A., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R., Kramer, K. J., Zimoch, L. and Merzendorfer, H. 2008. Insect chitin synthase genes CHS-A and CHS-B are specialized for synthesis of epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix. Comparative Biochem. Physiol. A- Molecular & Integrative Physiol. 148, S57.

247. Arakane, Y., Zhu, Q., Hogenkamp, D., Dixit, R., Specht, C. A., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2007. Functional analysis of genes of chitin metabolism in Tribolium castaneum by RNA interference. Comparative Biochem. Physiol. A- Molecular & Integrative Physiol. 148, S59.

248. Richards et al. (The Tribolium Genome Sequencing Consortium). 2008. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum. Nature 452, 949-955.

249. Zhu, Q., Arakane, Y., Banerjee, D., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2008. Domain organization and phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase family of proteins in three species of insects. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 452-466.

250. Zhu, Q., Arakane, Y., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2008. Characterization of recombinant chitinase-like proteins of Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 467-477.

251. Hogenkamp, D. G., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Beeman, R. W. 2008. Characterization and expression of the ß–N-acetylhexosaminidase gene family of Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 478-489.

252. Dixit, R., Arakane, Y., Specht, C. A., Richard, C., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2008. Domain organization and phylogenetic analysis of proteins from the chitin deacetylase gene family of Tribolium castaneum and three other species of insects. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 440-451.

253. Furusawa, T., Rakwal, R., Nam, H. W., Hirano, M., Shibato, J., Kim, Y. S., Ogawa, Y., Yoshida, Y., Kramer, K. J., Kouzuma, Y., Agrawal, G. K. and Yonekura, M. 2008. Systematic investigation of the hemolymph proteome of Manduca sexta at the fifth instar larvae stage using one- and two-dimensional proteomics platforms. J. Proteome Res. 7, 938-959.

254. Krizkova, S., Hrdinova, V., Adam, V., Burgess, E. P. J., Kramer, K. J., Masarik, M. and Kizek, R. 2008. Chip-based CE for avidin determination in transgenic tobacco and its comparison with square-wave voltammetry and standard gel electrophoresis. Chromatographia 67, Suppl. S, pp S75-S81.

255. Zhu, Q., Arakane, Y, Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2008. Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 105, 6650-6655.

256. Arakane, Y., Specht, C. A., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Beeman, R. W. 2008. Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg-hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 38, 959-962.

257. Arakane, Y., Li, B., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J. and Park, Y. 2008. Functional analysis of four neuropeptides, EH, ETH, CCAP and bursicon, in ecdysis behavior of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Mech. Develop. 125, 984-995. [Commentary: Merzendorfer, H. 2009. Beetle’s moult is different from fly’s. J. Exp. Biol. 212, vi.]

258. Lomakin, J., Eicher, C., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R. and Gehrke, S. H. 2009. Mechanical properties of beetle elytral cuticle, a hierarchically ordered multicomponent biomaterial. Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering 100, 470-471.

259. Matsumiya, M., Shirota, K., Ikeda, M., Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., & Kramer, K. J. 2008. Physiological roles and substrate specificities of chitinases from fish, insect and seaweed. Proceedings 5th World Fisheries Congress, Yokohama, Japan, p. 1-2.

260. Arakane, Y., Lomakin, J., Beeman, R. W., Muthukrishnan, S., Gehrke, S. H., Kanost, M. R. and Kramer, K. J. Molecular and functional analyses of amino acid decarboxylases involved in cuticle tanning in Tribolium castaneum. 2009. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 16584-16594.

261. Arakane, Y., Begum, K., Dixit, R., Park, Y., Specht, C. A., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Beeman, R. W. 2009. Analysis of functions of the chitin deacetylase gene family in Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 39, 355-365.

262. Tomoyasu, Y., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J. and Dennell, R. E. 2009. Repeated co-options of exoskeleton formation during wing-to-elytron evolution in beetles. Current Biology 19, 2057-2065. [Commentary: Fedrigo, O. and Wray, G. A. 2010. Developmental evolution: How beetles evolved their shields. Current Biology 20, R64-R66.]

263. Kramer, K. J. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2009. Chitin metabolism in insects. In L. I. Gilbert, ed., Insect Development: Morphogenesis, Molting and Metamorphosis. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, p. 497-530.

264. Lomakin, J., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R. and Gehrke, S. H. 2010. Mechanical properties of elytra from Tribolium castaneum wild-type and body color mutant strains. J. Insect Physiol. 56, 1901-1906.

265. Lomakin, J., Huber, P. A., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R. and Gehrke, S. H. 2009. Metabolic and mechanical properties of beetle elytral cuticle, a multicomponent biomaterial. In: Proceedings AlChE Annual Meeting, October-November, 2009. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, N.Y.

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2010s

266. Broehan, G., Arakane, Y., Beeman, R. W., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Merzendorfer, H. 2010. Chymotrypsin-like peptidases from Tribolium castaneum: a role in molting revealed by RNA interference. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 40, 274-283.

267. Suderman, R. J., Dittmer, N. T, Lomakin, J., Gehrke, S. H., Kramer, K. J. and Kanost, M. J. 2010. Residues involved in Manduca sexta pupal cuticle protein MsCP36 cross-linking in vitro. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 40, 252-258.

268. Arakane, Y., Dittmer, N. T., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R. W. and Kanost, M. R. 2010. Identification, mRNA expression and functional analysis of some yellow family genes in Tribolium castaneum. 40, 259-266.

269. Jasrapuria, S., Arakane, Y., Osman, G., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W. and Muthukrishnan. 2010. Domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and expression of gene families in Tribolium castaneum encoding proteins with peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 40, 214-227.

270. Lomakin, J., Huber, P. A., Eicher, C., Arakane, Y., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W., Kanost, M. R. and Gehrke, S. H. 2011. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material. Biomacromolecules 12, 321-335.

271. Mijaji, T., Murayama, S., Kouzuma, Y., Kimura, N., Kanost, M. R., Kramer, K. J. and Yonekura, M. 2010. Molecular cloning of a multidomain cysteine protease and protease inhibitor precursor gene from the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the cathepsin-F like cysteine protease domain. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 40, 835-846.

272. Oppert, B., Morgan, T. D. and Kramer, K. J. 2011. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin and protease inhibitors toward coleopteran storage pests. Pest Management Sci. 67, 568–573.

273. Arakane, Y., Baguinon, M. C., Jasrapuria, S., Chaudhari, S., Doyungan, A., Kramer, K. J., Muthukrishnan, S. and Beeman, R. W. 2011. Both UDP N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases of Tribolium castaneum are critical for molting, survival and fecundity. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 41, 42-50.

274. Muthukrishnan, S., Merzendorfer, H., Arakane, Y. and Kramer, K. J. 2012. Chitin metabolism in insects. In lnsect Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, L. I. Gilbert, ed., p. 193-235 (ISBN: 9780123847478).

275. Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Ma, E. and Zhu, K. Y. 2011. Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase gene cluster (AgCht5) possibly derived from tandem duplications in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 41, 521-528.

276. Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Kramer, K. J., Ma, E. and Zhu, K. Y. 2011. Comparative genomic analysis of chitinase and chitinase-like genes in the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae). PLoS ONE 6: e19899. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019899.

277. Chaudhari, S. S., Arakane, Y., Specht, C. A., Moussian, B., Boyle, D., Park, Y., Kramer, K. J., Beeman, R. W. and Muthukrishnan, S. 2011. Knickkopf protein protects and organizes chitin in the newly synthesized insect exoskeleton. PNAS 108, 17028-17033. [Editor’s Choice: In With The New. Science 333, 1802 (2011)]

278. Dittmer, N.T., Hiromasa, Y., Tomich, J.M., Lu, N., Beeman, R.W., Kramer, K.J. and Kanost, M.R. 2012. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of rigid and membranous cuticles from the elytra and hindwings of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Proteome Research. 11, 269-278.

279. Arakane, Y., Lomakin, J., Gehrke, S.H., Hiromasa, Y., Tomich, J.M., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R.W., Kramer, K.J., and Kanost, M.R. 2012. Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra) of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins. PLoS Genet 8(4):e1002682. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002682

280. Merzendorfer, H., Kim, H.S., Chaudhari, S.S., Kumari, M., Specht, C.A., Butcher, S., Brown, S.J., Manac, J.R., Beeman, R.W., Kramer, K.J., and Muthukrishnan, S. 2012. Genomic and proteomic studies of the effects of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron in the model beetle species Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem. Molec, Biol. 42, 264-276.

281. Jasrapuria, S., Specht, C.A., Kramer, K.J., Beeman, R.W., and Muthukrishnan, S. 2012. Gene families of cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAPs) in Triboliumcastaneum have diverse functions. PLoS ONE 7(11):e49844. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049844.

282. Chaudhari, S., Arakane, Y., Specht, C.A., Moussian, B., Kramer, K.J., Beeman, R.W., and Muthukrishnan, S. 2013. Retroactive maintains cuticle integrity by promoting the trafficking of Knickkopf into the procuticle of Tribolium castaneum. PLoS Genet. 9(1):e1003268. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003268.

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